with an emphasis on Human Resource Development
(A) 80th Annual Session and National Symposium
on “Climate Change : Research, Awareness and Capacity
Prof. M.S. Swaminathan, Member of Parliament lighting the
Lamp during the Inaugural Function
The Inaugural Function
of the 80th Annual Session of the Academy & the
Symposium on Climate Change, very well attended, was held in
the Maharana Pratap Auditorium at Jaipur on December 2,
2010. Prof. K.L. Sharma, Vice-Chancellor of the host
Institution (Jaipur National University) extended a warm
welcome to the Chief Guest, Prof. M.S. Swaminathan, Member
of Parliament; Guests of Honour, Prof. M.G.K. Menon,
Advisor, ISRO and Dr. K. Radhakrishnan, Chairman, ISRO;
Prof. Asis Datta, President, NASI and Prof. (Mrs.) Manju
Sharma, Past President, NASI & Convener of the Symposium;
and to all other distinguished guests and participants.
Asis Datta, President, NASI, lighting the Lamp during the
Prof Asis Datta, while delivering
the Presidential Address, spoke about the Academy, its
founders and co-founders; and emphasized that the National
Academy of Sciences, India was the first of its kind in the
country, which believed in disseminating the scientific
knowledge by educating public opinion. Prof. Datta further
dealt in detail about the Climate Change, its impact and the
role of the Academy in spreading awareness for conserving
the nature to curb the detrimental effects of climate
Honour, Prof. MGK Menon,Past President, NASI, lighting the
Lamp during the Inaugural Function
Prof. M.G.K. Menon delivered the
theme lecture on Climate Change from an Indian perspective.
Talking on the factors, which have been responsible for
climatic change, Prof. Menon said, “If you could only see
the earth patterns from the 1900s and compare them with now,
you would realize how they have changed completely. Even the
water system has changed. Warm periods have increased in the
last decade. So, two things are clearly established, growth
of temperature and growth of population. And most of the
climatic changes have been brought about by the human
beings, which are also known as Anthropogenic Climate
Changes (ACC)”. He said that massive deforestation and
change in land use pattern have adversely affected the
climatic conditions, world over. It has resulted in the rise
of global temperature by one to two degrees celsius. Overuse
of carbon-based energy mainly coal and oil has resulted in
large-scale generation of green house gases. There is a
crying need to stop this degradation.
Radhakrishnan, Chairman, ISRO, lighting the Lamp during the
Dr. K. Radhakrishnan while
delivering his Special Address on Role of Space Technologies
in Climate Change, said “since space is a global common, the
global community is working towards synergy in space.” He
further emphasized the role of space technologies in
detecting and predicting the adverse effect of climate
Distinguished Guests and other dignitaries during the
Prof. M.S. Swaminathan started
delivering the Inaugural Address on “Agriculture and
Livelihood” in relation to the climatic change, specifically
pointing out that wheat crop is largely affected by
temperature change, so an increase of 1-2% mean temperature
in earth atmosphere would mean a loss of about 400 kg per
hectare of wheat. Therefore, what’s needed was, a scientific
checkmating of climatic change.
In the end Prof. (Mrs.) Manju
Sharma described in brief about the technical sessions and
the different issues to be discussed on climate change.
Thereafter, an Award Presentation Ceremony followed by
felicitation of the dignitaries on dais took place.
Veena Tandon receiving Prof. Archana Sharma Memorial Lecture
Award (2010) from Prof. (Mrs.) Manju Sharma
Prof. (Mrs.) Manju Sharma, Past
President, NASI, presented Prof. Archana Sharma Memorial
Lecture Award (2010) to Prof. (Mrs.) Veena Tandon. The
Lecture Award carries a gold medal, citation and cash award
of Rs. 50,000/-. The prestigious NASI-Reliance Platinum
Jubilee Awards were also given to four distinguished
The Inaugural Function came to an
end with the vote-of-thanks by Prof. H.N. Verma,
Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Jaipur National University & Local
Organizing Secretary of the Session; and Prof. J.P. Khurana,
General Secretary, NASI.
The Technical Sessions
were on the broad themes, such as Agriculture, Energy,
Ecosystem Dynamics, Health and Water; as per decision in the
earlier meeting of the Advisory Committee, held under the
Chairmanship of Prof. M.G.K. Menon for developing the
programme of the Symposium on Climate Change. The following
distinguished speakers delivered informative, interesting
and illustrative talks concerned with different aspects of
these themes - Dr. Ajay Kumar Parida, Dr. (Mrs.) Jyoti
Parikh, Dr. V.S. Arunachalam, Dr. Rahul Tongia, Dr. Kailash
Paliwal, Dr. S.R. Shetye, Dr. S.S. Samant, Dr. Krishna
Achuta Rao, Dr. Manju Mohan, Prof. Saumitra Mukherjee, Dr.
J.N. Pande, Dr. Saumitra Das, Dr. M. Prashanth and Dr. Alok
Deb. The topics covered in the technical sessions were-
Managing Indian Agriculture in an Era of Climate Change,
Climate Negotiations and Role of New Energy Technologies,
Towards Understanding the Processes and Consequences of
Climate Change, Reality of Climate Change, Impact of Climate
Change on Air Quality, Remote Sensing Applications in
Groundwater Management in view of Climate Change, Adverse
Effects of Climate Change on Health with particular
reference to Infectious Diseases, Climate Change and
Disasters, Climate Change and Diarrhoea with reference to
Cholera; and so. The sessions were Chaired by Prof. M.S.
Swaminathan, Prof. M.G.K. Menon, Prof. (Mrs.) Manju Sharma,
Prof. J.P. Mittal, Prof. (Mrs.) Kasturi Datta, Prof. V.P.
Sharma & Dr. Amit Ghosh. After each session, discussions
were held drawing some conclusions and making some
During the concluding session,
steered by Prof. M.G.K. Menon (Chair), Prof. Asis Datta,
Prof. J.P. Mittal & Prof. (Mrs.) Manju Sharma, a categorical
remark was made by Prof. Mittal - “Our own anthropogenic
activities are indeed having a substantial & significantly
verifiable effect on our climate and hence on our lives.
There may still be some discussion about the quantitative
nature i.e. whether its 1°C or 2°C rise in temperature and
how this temperature rise would be disastrous? but, the
changes are definite and quantifiable as was clear from many
presentations during the last 2 days. This raises in my mind
a very philosophical question? That with 8-9% GDP growth in
economy and thus raising the expectations and aspirations of
a vast majority of our population towards more & more
consumption – larger & bigger vehicles SUV’s etc. is it not
automatic that we will continue to be on a disastrous path
of more & more carbon emissions? So what choice do we have?
Should we deny the fruits of development to those who never
had the opportunity and are just looking towards improvement
in their quality of Life? or do we believe in the ingenuity
of human brain and hope that very soon mankind will evolve
some technological fixes, to take care of some of the
seemingly unsurmuontable problems which we are facing now.
We are already seeing the quite a bit successes in the use
of alternative sources of energy other than based on coal &
fossil fuels. Can we not make the use of Solar Energy more &
more efficiently? It looks to me there is great hope if we
take up the challenges posed in it, scientifically &
Finally, after a long discussion,
several important recommendations were finalized for future
1. The Academy should
spread the awareness for conserving the nature to curb the
2. There is urgent need
to stop the degradation of forests and reduce to the extent
possible the anthropogenic climate changes.
3. Overuse of
carbon-based energy mainly coal and oil resulting in large
scale generation of green house gases has to be checked.
4. Space technologies
have a role in detecting and predicting adverse effect of
climate change. These can be developed and trained human
resources be generated for this.
5. Urgent need to
increase the agricultural production has been emphasized.
6. Many studies have
emphasized that Climate change scenarios will have serious
implications on food production, availability and ensuring
food and nutrition security. The challenge is how to achieve
enhanced agriculture productivity without any associated
ecological harm. Immediate research studies are needed in
identifying climate resilience genotypes of major crop and
wild relatives. It would be useful to establish Genetic
Resources Centers for a warming planet and rising oceans,
for assemblage of identified genotypes and their
characterization and validation.
7. There is a need for
establishing Genetic Enhancement Centers, in leading
institutions, for undertaking studies on identification of
genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
8. Development of climate
resilience agriculture, based on soil factors as well as
emerging threats of low water availability is a greater
challenge in ensuring agriculture productivity. This calls
for an integrated approach on application of technological
interventions in the area of Biotechnology, space and
information technology. Knowledge intensive agriculture
practices, being followed at the grass roots level by the
communities as an adaptation measure needs to be documented
as well as scientifically validated.
9. There is fundamental
need for India to grow its energy, especially electricity,
since the current consumption levels are one-third of the
global average, and ensure rapid human development.
10. For the foreseeable
future, coal will continue to be needed for electricity
production; and oil for transportation. The problem will be,
to find scientific solutions, within these parameters, to
reduce carbon footprint.
11. A multi-pronged
approach is needed for: energy efficiency; utilizing all
fuels available; and expanding the use of sustainable fuels;
and, in particular, the introduction of a smart grid system.
12. There are large cost
benefits attached to adaptation, particularly in urban
areas, to deal with mitigation of expected possibilities.
These include: storm water management; flood control;
disaster management techniques for rural areas; and ensuring
that farm value / net income is not significantly reduced.
These aspects require more research work and need to evolve
13. Training and awareness
campaigns are needed on the observed and predicted efforts
of global warming on health and food production in India and
remedial measures need to be taken. The academic activities
of IGNOU have very good scope of undertaking training and
14. Modeling on the
ecological variables on food productivity in India is
15. Studies on the climate
change and their impact on water borne diseases in hotspots
in the country are essential. In particular, understanding
about the climate-diarrhea (or cholera) relationships has to
16. Wherever possible,
retrospective data should be checked for their uniformity in
measurements (use of instruments, their precisions, unit of
measurement) over the entire time period considered under
the study. Data should be collected for sufficient time
period to capture changes in climate factors.
17. Changes in hospital
catchment areas as well as people’s care seeking behavior
might considerably affect number of diarrhea cases coming to
the hospital; knowledge of such events would allow better
interpretation of any changes in hospital data over time.
18. Attempts should be made
to verify the cause of any localized outbreaks, if indicated
by the data, so that any outbreak unrelated to climate
events (such as leakage in a water supply pipe) is not
attributed to climate change. To facilitate the process,
generic study protocols are now available for use in
retrospective as well as prospective studies to evaluate
climate-diarrhea associations; these protocols have been
developed jointly by scientists from National Institute of
Cholera & Enteric Diseases, Kolkata and National Institute
of Malaria Research, Delhi for the WHO South-East Asia
19. Use satellite images of
environmental changes to predict infectious diseases
20. Have more awareness
programmes in which honestly and dispassionately the
problems faced with climate changes, keeping in mind the
need to have more and more Energy requirements for the
economic uplift of masses are discussed.
21. Have more Scientific
and Technical Seminars and discussion meetings prioritizing
the goals of getting the Scientific & technical answers to
the well defined climate change problems.
22. We need to enhance our
capacity to respond to the negative health effects of
climate change by generating reliable, relevant, and
23. Disease surveillance
and rapid dissemination of information are important
components of preparedness for adapting to climate change.
Disaster management also needs to be strengthened.
informational, technological, and scientific capacity is
crucial for the success of a public health movement to
enhance adaptation. Weak capacity for climate research in
poor countries is likely to deepen the social inequality in
relation to health. Studies should be undertaken to assess
the negative health effects of climate change in developing
25. To draw out a list of
such diseases relevant for India.
26. Develop cheap and
effective diagnostic tools for early detection.
27. Stockpile antibiotics
(effective against these) for a quick response if needed.
28. Develop vaccines as a
long term measure.
29. Establishment of
long-term observational and monitoring network, in respect
of meteorological and ecological data, for critical
habitats, species and ecosystems in the Indian Himalayan
Region (& elsewhere).
30. Development of package
of practices for maintenance and sustainable use of
sensitive components of the ecosystems, and improvement/
value addition of bio-resource based livelihood options for
the rural & indigenous communities is called for.
31. Establishment and
maintenance of a network of live repositories (on farm
cultivation) of land races and lesser known crops of
different agro-climatic zones across the IHR.
32. Integration of
biodiversity conservation programmes with water
33. Involvement of local
communities in adaptation and refinement of traditional
cropping mechanisms, especially by adopting good practices
in respect of climate change.
34. Promotion of awareness
and educational programmes on conservation and sustainable
utilization of the bioresources, and for safe guarding the
35. There is an urgent need
to launch a national action plan to take remedial action to
clean up the estuaries. The action plan would involve two
sets of actions. The first is gathering of data on the
present status of the estuaries. The second is remedial
actions for curbing of effluent flow into the estuaries (for
data gathering and evolving policies for pollution free
36. Traditionally ocean
sciences in India have focused on large-scale, open sea
oceanography. In view of the problems that are arising in
our estuaries, it is important to enhance our understanding
of these systems through research. There is also a need to
build capacity to address issues related to estuaries. It is
therefore recommended to enhance infrastructure to take up
research and education in estuaries studies. This would be
best achieved by setting up an institution dedicated to
estuarine science and education.
37. Any action aimed at
cleaning of estuaries of India would require gathering of
data on their present status. The number of estuaries being
large, and the required data gathering being laborious,
India does not have government machinery to achieve this
task. It is recommended that these data be gathered through
institutions of higher learning (undergraduate and
postgraduate colleges) located in the area. This will create
awareness amongst the local population about the problem
associated with the estuaries and their possible solutions.
It will also help in capacity building for addressing issue
of estuarine pollution.
38. Urgent support is
needed to generate local solutions to biodiversity loss.
Sustaining biological diversity and ecosystem services are
hence important both in our efforts to deal with climate
change and to reach the UN’s Millennium Development Goals.
Such measures are in other words both cost-effective and
have the capacity to create many potential synergies.
39. Reducing deforestation
is a cost-effective way of reducing CO2
emissions. Tree plantations can contribute to CO2-sequestration,
but may also have detrimental social consequences if, for
example, local people’s user and access rights are
disregarded and/or unclear.
40. Land use changes
leading to habitat and thus biodiversity losses can also
boost greenhouse gas emissions. For instance forests, which
are vital carbon sinks, release carbon dioxide (CO2)
into the atmosphere when cut down or burnt. Major studies on
all these aspects are called for. Plantation forestry is
41. It must be recognized
that human beings have integral relationship with the
natural environment. The most effective way to adjust
climate change to adopt the sustainable development pathway
(optimum carrying capacity) is by shifting to
environmentally sustainable technologies and promotion of
energy efficiency, renewable energy, forest conservation,
reforestation and water conservation.
42. There is change in
rainfall and vegetations due to global warming; an alternate
approach like rainwater harvesting or artificial recharging
by site selection and finally ground water exploration using
the modern methods of remote sensing can tackle efficiently
as per our need.
43. Global warming, its
deleterious effect on atmospheric processes, biodiversity
and human health is apparent and knowledge has to be
generated in almost all disciplines. An interdisciplinary
approach is needed to combat the situation.
44. The local chapters of
NASI could take up a movement on Climate Literacy of local
communities including school students.
45 The main concerned
Ministries are: Science and Technology; Environment and
Forests; Earth Sciences; Human Resource Development; Indian
Council of Agricultural Research and Indian Council of
Medical Research. There is need to involve the universities,
colleges, research institutions, NGOs etc. in the
implementation of various recommendations.
A view of
the dais during Annual Session activities - (from L-R) Prof.
A.K. Singh, Sectional President, Physical Sciences; Prof.
J.P. Khurana, General Secretary (OS), NASI; Prof. Asis Datta,
President, NASI and
Paramjit Khurana, Sectional President, Biological Sciences
In the Annual Session
activities, held on
December 3-4, 2010, Prof. A.K. Singh & Prof. (Mrs.) Paramjit
Khurana delivered the Presidential Addresses on “Bioorganic
and excited state studies of retinal related photoactive
molecules” and “Genes and genomics for tailoring crops for
the changing climate” in Physical and Biological Sciences
Sections, respectively. About 300 papers were read and
presented by the young researchers during the scientific
sessions. Annual General Meeting and Fellow’s Meeting were
held on Dec.03, 2010; NASI-Reliance Awards, NASI-Young
Scientists Awards and NASI-Swarna Jayanti Puraskars were
also presented during the Annual Session. The shining
feature of the Annual Session was the presence of a large
number of students and young scientists.
(B) The establishment of Ganga-Gallery -
The river Ganges occupies an unique position in the cultural
ethos of India. Legend says that the river has descended
from Heaven to the earth as a result of the long and arduous
prayers of King Bhagirath for the salvation of his deceased
ancestors. From times immemorial, the Ganga has been
India's river of faith, devotion and worship. But Ganga’s
existence is under threat, due to enormously increasing load
of pollution year by year. Therefore, during an important
discussion held between Prof. M.G.K. Menon, Prof. M.S.
Swaminathan and Prof. (Mrs.) Manju Sharma, it was decided to
adopt ways to make the people aware for the conservation and
restoration of the holy river Ganges by establishing a Ganga-gallery
with the following well defined objectives in order to
highlight the religious, cultural, economic and scientific
aspects of the holy river.
1. To develop a Ganga-gallery with maps, large
photographs and sculptures indicating different activities
related to the holy river Ganges.
2. To create 'The Ganga Model' in a large hall
indicating different pollution sources from Gaumukh to Ganga
Sagar and its impact on the water quality with the help of
relevant data and photographs. The model will also include
the flow directions, water carrying capacity, sand
3. To establish a library with the literature on the
origin; geological structure; geographical distribution;
flow of water through different states; physico-chemical and
biological properties; pollution sources & other
degradational forces; biodiversity & endangered species;
cultural, religious, economic, social and ecological
significance of the holy river Ganges.
4. To make audio visual presentation/light and sound
program on the Ganga.
5. To institute fellowships and start lecture series on
the Ganga in different states specially where those
the river flows.
6. To prepare CDs and documentary films, arrange
photography and essay competition on the Ganga and
involve NGOs, Universities, Colleges, Schools, Electronic
and Print Media etc. for public awareness and action
7. To create a Web Site for wider publicity and
disseminate the knowledge at global level about the Ganga.
8. To encourage researchers of various disciplines and
develop indigenous technologies for the treatment and
recycling of waste waters to solve the problems of the Ganga
9. To develop trees, shrubs and grasses plantation
strategy to control the impact of pollution, silt load and
maintain the ecological integrity of the river ecosystem.
10. To organize seminar, symposia, workshop and training
programmes time to time on the issues related to the river
With the consent of the Council of the Academy, and initial
support money from MPLAD fund (generously given by Hon’ble
Prof. Murli Manohar Joshi, M.P.) the construction work
started; further the Department of Science & Technology,
Govt. of India, New Delhi, extended adequate financial grant
with which the construction of an Annex Block to house the
gallery, was completed.
After completion of the Annex Block, the Academy took the
help of the National Council of Science Museum, Kolkata in
the installation of the exhibits on socio-religious and
scientific aspects of the river Ganges. The MOU was signed
between NASI and NCSM, to actualize the dream.
MOU is being signed by NASI and NCSM officials in the
presence of Prof. M.G.K. Menon
A Report on the Inauguration of the Ganga-gallery -
On April 15th 2011, Union Science and Technology Minister
Hon`ble Shri Pawan Kumar Bansal inaugurated the
scientifically installed magnificent and aesthetic Ganga-gallery.
Science and Technology Minister Hon`ble Shri Pawan Kumar
Bansal inaugurated the Ganga-gallery; in the presence of
Prof. A.K. Sharma, President, NASI, Prof. M.G.K. Menon and
other distinguished guests
Prof. A.K.Sharma, President, NASI welcomed the guests. He
thanked for the efforts of Prof. Menon and Prof. (Mrs) Manju
Sharma in establishing the gallery, the first of its kind in
Prof. (Mrs) Sharma explained with beautiful illustration the
attributes of Ganga-gallery equipped with landscapes and
sculptures, animated models, multimedia graphics and
designs, current hydro-biological data, information about
the myths and legends connected to the origin and voyage of
the holy river, and its traditional galore. She
categorically emphasized gangetic ecosystem, climate change
and its impact on the Ganga basin, soil characteristics,
Gangetic-dolphins, Sunderbans, water properties and its
monitoring, need and importance of sewage treatment plants
in curbing the menace of pollution etc.
Further, Prof. Asis Datta, Immediate Past President, NASI,
presented the salient features of the brochure on Ganga-gallery;
which was later on released by the Chief Guest Hon’ble Shri
Pawan Kumar Bansal.
Sri G.S.Rautela, Director-General of NCSM, Kolkata explained
about the making of Ganga-Gallery and urged the Hon’ble
Minister to extend his help in having a mobile van museum
for NASI to further spread the message of gallery even in
the remotest areas all along the course of river.
Former Union Minister of Science & Technology and Advisor,
New Initiatives of NASI, Prof. MGK Menon recalling the words
of Prof. Saha, Founder President-NASI, about the role of the
Academy in spreading awareness for eradication of social
evils to ensure the scientific development, exhorted the
youth to come forward to preserve and maintain the
ecological balance, especially for the Gangetic ecosystem.
The CD of the Documentary Film on Ganga prepared by Prof.
B.D.Tripathi was also released by Prof. MGK Menon.
Hon’ble Minister Shri Bansal, in his inaugural address
highlighted the importance of the holy river Ganges,
describing her as the life-line, a symbol of purity and
virtue for millions of people, not only for those living on
its banks but from all over the country because the Ganges
represents their ethos, culture & identity in every form.
The Ganges, like many rivers of world sustains a diverse
flora & fauna, which not only help in maintaining the
pristine purity of water, but also serve as a resource for
more than 450 million people living in its basin. The water
of river Ganges – Gangajal – does not putrefy, even after
long periods of storage, whereas water from other sources
begins to putrefy as lack of oxygen promotes the growth of
anaerobic bacteria; but today these attributes are only the
reminiscence of the great heritage. The present situation is
unfortunately different. Due to indifference towards
environment and diminishing ethical values, river Ganges and
its basin have been treated by people as a huge reservoir
for dumping the wastes; and this has been happening over
several decades. Dumping of plastic bags, plastic
containers, mineral water bottles, cans, rubbers & plastics,
partly dissolved faeces, soaps and detergents, medical waste
and several other articles in the river has defaced the
Ganges. Industrial growth along the banks has generated
enormous waste, which conveniently and thoughtlessly is
discharged into the river. Such exogenic activities have
robbed the river of its pristine glory and sacredness. A
collective action from all the stakeholders, the people and
the state is, therefore needed to bring “Ganga” to its
original glory. Therefore, NASI has made a remarkable and
laudable effort by establishing the Ganga Gallery- a unique
endeavor, perhaps not seen for any other river in the world.
In the end of the session Prof. J P Khurana General
Secretary (OS) felicitated the dignitaries on the dais and
Prof. Krishna Misra, General Secretary (HQ) proposed the
After the inauguration, more than 250 people including the
Council Members, Fellows and Members, and others visited the
gallery, interacting with the dynamic exhibits to learn many
facts and figures; and finally they took oath to conserve
the river before leaving the gallery.
(C) Collaborations with other Academies
National Science Academies' Joint Science Education Panel
Summer Research Fellowships
Total number of the applications received for the summer
research fellowship programme in the year 2010 were – 11019;
out of which 1008 students and teachers availed the
The announcement for the Summer Research Fellowship
appeared in the websites of all the three Academies in
October 2010. Over
18000 posters were mailed to colleges, universities and
other institutions all
over the country. The last date for submission of
applications was 31 December 2010. A total of 14478
applications were received.
Six specially constituted Selection Committees drawn from
the Fellowships of all the three academies met in January
2011 over 2-3 days in Bangalore to select candidates for the
programme. Although over 1900 candidates were shortlisted by
the selection committees, fellowships could be offered only
to about 1550 candidates, due to inadequate number of guides
particularly in engineering sciences.
Eighteen Refresher Courses (of two-week duration) were held
in different parts of the country for the benefit of
teachers to improve their teaching skills.
Refresher Course on Modern
Biotechnological Techniques At Manipal
Life Sciences Centre,
Manipal University, Manipal January 10 - 22,2011
These are 2 or 3-day lecture programmes on carefully chosen
topics held at
selected college and university departments in the country
for the benefit of local students and teachers. During the
period April 2010 to March 2011, 47 workshops were held. The
workshops are presently concentrated mostly in the southern
and western parts of the country despite our best efforts to
spread this programme to unrepresented areas. Efforts will
be intensified to hold more workshops in eastern and
northern parts of the country in the coming years.
Prof. G. Marimuthu
delivering a lecture at the Workshop on Biotechnology
At Srikaliswari College,
Sivakasi, held on February 4 - 5, 2011
(D) Projects/Studies of Social Relevance –
The Academy has undertaken the following projects/studies of
social relevance –
Reducing macro and micro-nutrient malnutrition
through popularization of functional food supplements
adopting bio-village approach.
Bio-technological approaches for food and nutritional
security of the children.
Issues of water-borne parasitic diseases.
Climate change and its impact on health and
Natural resources awareness.
Preparation of Monograph on the Development of
Calculus in India.
To study the impact of By-pass Desert Cooler on
(E) Science Communication Activities and National Science
Day Celebration- Like previous years, the Academy
organized science communication activities to stimulate the
students for cultivation of scientific temper and to opt
science as a career. The activities organized during the
year included Children Science Meet, workshop for the
teachers, talent search, science extension lectures, science
quiz, debate, oration, exhibition, scientific
writing/painting contest, winter school and summer school.
The national level scientific writing contest was also
organized for the undergraduate students.
(i) Children Science Meet
was held just after the successful organization of the 80th
Annual Session and the Symposium on ‘Climate Change’, on
December 4, 2010, at 2:00 p.m. in the auditorium of Jaipur
National University, Jaipur. The Meet was addressed by the
eminent scientists like Prof. M.G.K. Menon, Prof. V.P.
Sharma, Prof. (Mrs.) Manju Sharma, Prof. Amit Ghosh and
Prof. H.N. Verma. It was attended by a large number of
students from about 20 schools of Jaipur.
(ii) Interactive Workshops :
(a) Biological Workshop on Biodiversity on December
20-24, 2010 -The year 2010 was celebrated as the
International Year of Biodiversity (IYB - 2010); therefore,
the DNA Club, NASI, Allahabad under the project of
Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, also organized
a 5 days ‘Biological Sciences Workshop on Biodiversity’ from
December 20-24, 2010; Dr. Niraj Kumar, Executive Secretary,
NASI & PI, DNA Club Project, welcomed the assembly of
students and teachers of Intermediate Colleges of U.P., M.P.
and Bihar on December 20, 2010. and presented a brief
outline of the programme. Prof. S.L. Srivastava,
Coordinator, Science Communication Programme & Member, LAC,
DNA Club, NASI, extended a formal welcome to the speakers,
distinguished guests, teachers and students on this
U. C. Srivastava, Convener, Biological Sciences Prof.
C.B.L. Srivastava, Formerly Head of Zoology
Workshop on Biodiversity,
addressing the audience UoA delivering his
Prof. U.C. Srivastava, Convener of the Animal Sciences
Section and Council Member, NASI, delivered a thematic
lecture. Prof. C.B.L. Srivastava (Former Head, Dept. of
Zoology, University of Allahabad) delivered the
key-note-address describing in detail the entire
evolutionary sequence of biodiversity. He briefly discussed
about the definition of biodiversity, origin & extinct of
species, ecosystem, biodiversity loss and its factors,
biodiversity hot spot, forest area and its impact,
anthropogenic activities, global warming etc. Prof. G.K.
Srivastava, Dr. Mohd. Masood, Sri Sanjay Srivastava and
several others were also present on this occasion. Sri A.K.
Srivastava (Deputy Executive Secretary), Sri B.P. Singh (AES,
NASI) and Dr. Chitranjan Kumar provided their active support
in organizing the inaugural function of this workshop.
After the lunch, in Technical Session I, Prof. U.C.
Srivastava delivered an informative lecture on ‘Five and Six
Animal Kingdom System’; and demonstrated experimentally the
Barr- bodies and Mitochondrial studies. He also discussed
about brain functioning and provided some valuable tips to
the students for improving their learning and understanding
capacity. In the concluding session of Animal Sciences, Dr.
V. C. Srivastava, Formerly Head, Dept. of Zoology, CMP
Degree College, Allahabad, delivered an informative lecture
on ‘Evolutionary mechanisms leading to biodiversity’.
In the technical session II, Dr. Ranjan Dey, BITS Pilani,
Goa Campus, while delivering his lecture on ‘Climate Change-
Awareness and Capacity Building’ highlighted the present and
future impact of Climate Change on global warming as well as
On 21st December, 2010, the Plant Sciences
Session was started with the lecture delivered by Prof. G.K.
Srivastava, Managing Editor & Secretary, Allahabad Chapter,
NASI, on ‘Telomere and Telomerase’. He highlighted the role
of genomics in Medical Science, especially role of
telomerase enzyme in curing cancer like diseases. Prof. L.C.
Rai, Department of Botany, B.H.U. Varanasi delivered an
informative lecture on ‘Microscopic biodiversity with
reference to Cyanobacteria’. Highlighting the role of
Cyanobacteria, in the evolution of life forms on the earth;
he stressed that they play significant role in maintaining
oxygen and chlorophyll balance in various ecosystems. Each
of these lectures was followed by interactive session. The
concluding lecture on the second day was delivered by Prof.
D.K. Chauhan, Senior Professor, Dept. of Botany, University
of Allahabad; and Member LAC, DNA Club, NASI, on
‘Significance of Biodiversity and Indian Plants’. He
discussed in details about the recent techniques of
propagation of plants including Bonsai, to conserve the
endangered floral diversity.
In the afternoon of 21st December, 2010, the participants
left for the diversity tour of Vindhya region and
Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve under the leadership of Dr. Niraj
Kumar, PI, DNA Club Project, NASI.
On 22nd December, 2010, the diversity studies were conducted
on the marshy vegetation of Rampur Plateau of Maihar zone
after Holy Darshan of Maa Sharada. Further,
collections of plant materials were done and herbarium were
prepared. Again the students visited the Pass and Valley in
between the Hill and Plateau. In the evening the students
made and submitted project report on the whole day
The next day was full of thrill as 120 students and teachers
went deep into the Forest Tiger Reserve searching the animal
diversity as well as enjoying the free roam of endangered
species like Chetal, Sambhar, Black Deer, Wild Boar etc.
On the last day (December 24, 2010), the joint valedictory
function of Biological Sciences Workshop on Biodiversity and
Workshop on Ramanujan’s Mathematics, was held in the
auditorium of the Academy at 4:00pm having Prof. J.S. Singh,
a world famous environmental scientist, as the Chief Guest.
Welcome address was delivered by Prof. S.L. Srivastava.
Prof. D.K. Chauhan gave a brief remark on the Biological
Sciences Workshop on Biodiversity and its salient features
as well as achievements. While on the other hand, Dr. Pankaj
Srivastava explained the importance of Ramanujan’s Theory
and the impact of workshop held in NASI.
In the end, vote-of –thanks was proposed by Prof. G.K.
Ranjan Dey, BITS Pilani addressing the audience Prof. J.
S. Singh, BHU, Varanasi;
(b) Workshop on Ramanujan’s Mathematics December 22-24,
2010 - To commemorate the birth anniversary of the great
Indian Mathematician Ramanujan, the Academy (NASI) organized
a workshop on Ramanujan’s Mathematics. Eminent
mathematicians, teachers, research scholars and students
from across the country gathered here on this occasion. The
programme began in the morning with brief introduction of
speakers by Prof. Pankaj Srivastava, Convener of this
workshop. It was followed by a welcome speech by Prof. S.L.
Srivastava, Coordinator, Science Communication Programme,
NASI. He called upon the young scholars to attain and
ultimately surpass the level of dedication shown by
Ramanujan to mathematics and make India proud in the field
of Mathematics. He asked the experts to be the harbinger of
the change towards reducing the weight of the primary
children’s school bags by changing the system of current
school education. He also proposed the opinion among the
experts to think about why not mathematics would be the only
subject to be taught at primary level. He reminded that
Ramanujan also learned only mathematics at primary level.
After this Prof. P. K. Banerjee, Emeritus fellow, UGC, India
& Ex-HOD Jodhpur University gave the keynote address on
‘Remembering Ramanujan’ and presented a brief Bibliography
of life of Ramanujan. He told the assembly of eminent
teachers, researchers and students, about the recent
discovery that Ramanujan died of hepatic amoebiasis rather
than tuberculosis as previously suspected. He also asked the
delegates to walk down the path shown by Ramanujan. Prof.
S.N Singh (renowned mathematician on Ramanujan’s work,
Purvanchal University, Jaunpur) appreciated the approach of
the Academy to celebrate Mathematics Day with a Workshop to
inspire young scholars to learn more and more about
Ramanujan’s contribution in the field of mathematical world.
On this occasion, Prof. M.S. Naika, Bangalore University and
Prof. Yashoverdhan Vyas, Sir Padampati Singhania University,
Udaipur were also present. Sri A. K. Srivastava, Deputy
Executive Secretary, NASI delivered the vote-of-thanks at
the end of the programme.
After the inaugural function, the first lecture of the
technical session was given by Prof. S.N. Singh on
Hypergeometric & Basic Hypergeometric Functions and their
relations with Ramanujan’s work. He elaborated the proofs in
a simplified manner for the benefit of scholars gathered
there. This was followed by a lecture on N-Theta functions
& Ramanujan’s Theta functions by Prof. Naika. He told that
whatever work would be done on N-Theta Functions would be
new and path breaking. Prof. P.K. Banerjee delivered his
talk on ‘Introduction of Fractional Calculus’. He presented
the concepts in a very lucid manner. In the evening, Prof.
R.Y. Denis, Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, presented a
talk on Hypergeometric Functions and Ramanujan’s Continued
NASI organized a cultural extravaganza in the evening after
the rigorous brain storming session throughout the
Mathematics day (22nd December). It showcased a wide range
of talents and left the audience spellbound. Ritvija
Srivastava, a young budding dancer who had previously won at
All India Kathak Competition, entertained the audience with
her award winning performance. Himani Rawat (Bal Mahotsava
prize winner) performed to beats of the famous song from the
movie Bhool Bhoolaiya. Ritvija once again enthralled the
audience with her rendition of a famous Madhuri Dixit
number. Gaurav Dubey (Mahua Channel Fame) had the audience
in splits with his mimicry of various films stars. Girish
paid tribute to Goddess Saraswati by singing a melodious
prayer. The star of the evening was R. K. Tiwari, aka
Dukanji (Guinness Books Record Holder), who mesmerized the
audience with a candle dance on his moustache, which earned
him several accolades, previously also. All the performers
were given prizes as a mark of appreciation. The entire
programme was anchored by Astha Gupta.
Prof. P. K. Banerjee, Emeritus Fellow, UGC &
A view of the audience
University delivering the
On the second day (23rd December, 2010) of technical session
of the workshop on Ramanujan’s Mathematics, first lecture
was delivered by Prof. S.N. Singh. He delivered a very
interesting talk on Hypergeometric function, generalized
Hypergeometric function, confluent Hypergeometric function
and contiguous relations of Hypergeometric function. Dr.
Singh established results on transformation and summation
formulae and the concept of well poised series. He
introduced Bailey transform and its applications and
informed the audience about the importance of Bailey’s
transformation and quoted as a very powerful tool to develop
Rogers- Ramanujan Type New Identities.
Second lecture was delivered by Prof. M.S. Naika, Bangalore
University, on the Basic Hypergeometric function. In the
lecture, he informed the audience that Ramanujan’s continued
fractions were being used by NASA scientists like Prof.
Murthy, a physicist to detect black holes in the space.
Third lecture was given by Dr. Yashoverdhan Vyas, Udaipur
University. He introduced the audience about new
developments in the field of Hypergeometric function and
explained the concept of Elliptic Hypergeometric Function
which started very recently in 1997. He said that elliptic
Hypergeometric function was a new class of special function
which didn’t emerge from scratch. He told that they were the
result of long term development in theoretical Physics
related with quantum and elliptic integrable system. It
arose as elliptic solution of Yang- Baxteris equation and
later while studying the Poda chain in Physics also. The
final lecture was delivered by Prof. S.D. Adhikari, Harish
Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad on “Partition function
congruences; some flowers and sweets from Ramanujan’s
On the concluding day (24th December, 2010) of the Workshop
on Ramanujan’s Mathematics, Prof. P.K. Banerjee, delivered a
lecture on “Some problems of Fractional Calculus”. He gave
some tips on effective paper writing to the scholars. He
further said that supervisors were also a party to the blame
for rejection of papers by editors because they fell short
in guiding their students properly. All to him, supervisors
could have guide properly only when they themselves had
become a student. He noted that use of correct English
grammar was also very important to convey any once work
Prof. S.N. Singh continued his talk on hypergeometric
function, generalized hypergeometric function, confluent
hypergeometric function, contiguous relations of
hypergeometric function. Dr. Singh showed some of his
established results on transformation and summation formulae
and the concept of well poised series. He further developed
the generalization of Bailey’s transformation.
Second lecture was delivered by Prof. M.S. Naika, who
delivered talk on the ‘A Special Class of Invariants’. The
penultimate lecture was given by Dr. Yashoverdhan Vyas, who
introduced the audience about the important results elliptic
Hypergeometric functions and established proof of a number
of results of Warnar’s paper on elliptic Hypergeometric
functions. He told that long term development in theoretical
Physics was related with quantum and elliptic integrable
system. It arose as elliptic solution of Yang-Baxteris
equation and later while studying the Poda chain in Physics
Prof. S.L. Srivastava,
Coordinator, Science Communication Programme, congratulating
At last, during the open discussion session on Ramanujan’s
Mathematics, a number of participants said that they learnt
different facet of Ramanujan’s Mathematics with full
satisfaction and the opportunity they availed through the
workshop motivated them to do some thing new in the area of
Ramanujan’s Mathematics. They requested the authorities of
NASI to continue workshop on Ramanujan’s Mathematics as a
regular event to celebrate birth anniversary of Ramanujan
every year. Among the eminent personalities namely Prof.
M.S. Naika and Prof. Yashoverdhan Vyas appreciated the
approach of The National Academy of Sciences, India for
organizing a thematic workshop on the occasion of
Ramanujan’s Mathematics. They were of the view that
participants, who had come from the different parts of the
country, should have learnt more and more about Ramanujan’s
Mathematics and urged to contribute path breaking results in
the International arena of Ramanujan’s Mathematics, so that
Indian could take a lead at international level. They were
very grateful to the Academy for providing opportunity to
deliver talks on Ramanujan’s Mathematics and urged that the
Academy would continue to organize workshops on Ramanujan’s
Mathematics in future. Prof. Pankaj Srivastava said that the
workshop could motivate young scholars to develop new
results in the area of Ramanujan’s Mathematics. Prof. S.L.
Srivastava congratulated Prof. Pankaj Srivastava, Convenor,
Workshop on Ramanujan’s Mathematics, for organizing a
successful workshop; and appreciated the participants for
their dedication throughout the entire programme.
At the joint valedictory function of Workshop on Ramanujan’s
Mathematics and Biological Workshop on Biodiversity,
participants shared their experience of these workshops.
Addressing the joint gathering of the participants of both
the workshops, Dr. Niraj Kumar concluded the positive
outcomes of both these workshops and appreciated the efforts
of the Conveners for the successful organization of these
workshops. Prof. S.L. Srivastava appreciated the efforts of
organizers to make these workshops a grand success. Prof.
J.S. Singh, CAS in Botany, BHU, Varanasi called upon the
youngsters to conserve the biodiversity and enrich the
knowledge of species about the environment. He emphasized
the importance of practical visits for better learning
experience. Prof. D.K. Chauhan, Botany Department,
University of Allahabad said that humans are most
responsible for the destruction of biodiversity and further
emphasized on the conservation of environment. He further
said that enrichment of biodiversity can revolutionize the
world scenario in every sphere of the environment. Prof. G.K.
Srivastava proposed vote-of –thanks. In the end, Prof. S.L.
Srivastava expressed wishes to meet the participants again
in future. The Organising Committee members namely Dr.
Chitranjan Kumar, Amit Srivastava, Vivek Pandey, Kaushal
Shukla, Neerja Sharma gave their active support to make this
function a grand success.
(c) Workshop on Library and Information Science - The
National Academy of Sciences, India organized a one day
workshop on “Library and Information Science”, on Thursday
16 December 2010 in the Auditorium of the Academy at
Allahabad. The workshop was the first of its kind, held in
Allahabad; and the purpose was to make the
students/teachers/library personnels aware about the
advancements made in this field in last few years; and also
to enthuse the students to opt career in this challenging
area. Inaugural session of the workshop was started with the
welcome address delivered by Prof. (Mrs.) Krishna Misra,
General Secretary (H.Q.), NASI. She expressed her heartiest
gratitude towards the eminent speakers, who spared time for
their busy schedule to deliver lectures in the technical
sessions of the workshop; as well as also thanked the
participants for their warm response.
A view of the dais during
the Inaugural Function ;( L to R) Dr. Niraj Kumar, Prof. U.C.
Srivastava, Prof. S.L. Srivastava, Prof. (Mrs.) Krishna
Misra, Dr. V.D. Srivastava and Prof. G.K. Srivastava.
Prof. G.K. Srivastava gave a brief remark on the theme of
workshop. Prof. U.C.Srivastava introduced the key note
speaker Dr. V.D. Srivastava (Librarian, IIT, Kanpur), who
delivered the Inaugural Lecture on “Management of Digital
Library: an Overview”, focusing on the career/job
opportunities in the field of library and information
Dr. V.D. Srivastava delivering the
Inaugural Dr. V.R. Tiwari
delivering a lecture
Lecture during the Workshop
After a short tea break, in the Technical Session-I, Dr.
Ratna Sanyal (IIIT, Allahabad) delivered an informative and
illustrative lecture on “Techniques, Policies, Issues &
Benefits to set up a Digital Library”; followed by another
interesting lecture on “Bar coding and RFID Technology for
Libraries” delivered by Dr. V.R. Tiwari (Librarian, H.R.I.,
view of the audience
Dr. Tiwari explained the mechanism and benefits of this
latest technology, useful in locating a particular book from
the pile-up of thousands of library storage .After the
lunch, Dr. Anjana Bhatnagar (Information Officer, IIT,
Kanpur) presented the details on “Application of Web
Technology in Document Delivery”. The workshop was attended
by 200 students, teachers and professionals, who were also
satisfied with the answers to their queries during the
interactive session conducted by the experts and
participants. The workshop was coordinated by Smt. Deepti
Jaiswal, Office Assistant (Library), NASI.
In the end, Dr. Niraj Kumar, Executive Secretary, NASI
expressed a vote-of-thanks.
(d) Workshop on Characterization Techniques on
Nanotechnology from February 12-13, 2011 - The two days
Workshop on “Characterization Techniques on Nanotechnology”
held at NASI Allahabad aroused the interest of several
groups from various disciplines of science. Nearly 80
Participants including Faculty members, Young researchers,
and PG & UG students from the different departments of
University of Allahabad, constituent degree colleges,
engineering colleges had gathered on this occasion.
The workshop was inaugurated by Prof G K Srivastava,
(Chairman, Allahabad Chapter, NASI) and Prof A C Pandey
(Prof. & Head, Nanotechnology Application Centre,
University of Allahabad).
On this occasion, Dr Niraj Kumar (Executive Secretary, NASI)
welcomed all the faculty members of Allahabad University and
other participants. Dr Niraj briefly described about the
objectives and present activities of NASI & its Allahabad
Chapter; and also the objective behind the workshop. This
was followed by the welcome/thematic address of Prof Avinash
C. Pandey; who discussed almost all the aspects of
nanotechnology in day to day life. He emphasized the
importance of these kinds of activities in the present
academic scenario, and how the young researchers could be
benefited by the workshop. The inaugural session ended with
a vote of thanks by Sri A K Srivastava.
In his key note address-“Basics of Nanotechnology, Overview,
Different Applications in Daily life”, Prof AC Pandey
covered various aspects of nanotechnology and its
applications. The importance of different material
characterization tools was also discussed. He gave glimpses
of different kind of nanomaterials including III-V, II-VI,
metal nanoparticles, rare earth based luminescent magnetic
nanoparticles for diverse applications such as solid state
lightening, solar cells, large area high definition display
panels, sensor, biomedical applications & environmental
Further, Mr. Raghvendra Singh Yadav introduced the basic
theory and instrumentation of UV-Visible and Luminescence
Spectroscopy to the audience. Furthermore, how one can
calculate the band gap of nanomaterials or study the
luminescence properties of nanomaterials was discussed in
Mr. Prashant K. Sharma, Research Scientist at NAC-UoA,
described about different material characterization tools,
the properties that one can measure. He introduced the
facilities available with Nanotechnology Application Centre,
University of Allahabad. Then he provided a glimpse of the
basics of electron microscopy, interaction of electrons with
materials. He also gave some interesting history of electron
microscope, principles of a transmission electron microscope
(TEM), its illumination system, projection system, mode of
operations along with the principles of scanning electron
microscope (SEM). Then he introduced modern/advanced TEM and
SEM installed at NAC and its capabilities/advantages. In the
latter half of the talk, Mr. Sharma discussed variety of
applications of an electron microscopy both in material
science/nanotechnology and as well as in biological
sciences. He explained how electron microscopy could be used
to know the different kind of properties of any substance.
For the case study Mr. Sharma explained the indexing steps
of different kind of selected area electron diffraction
patterns and the analysis of defects using TEM.
(FEI Quanta 200 MK2 Series); and TEM (FEI Tecnai G2), at
NAC, UoA, Allahabad
Dr. Manvendra Kumar introduced about the project “High
Fluence Ion-Beam Facility (HFIBF)” sanctioned by Department
of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and
Technology, Government of India, New Delhi under the Nano
Mission at Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of
Allahabad. At the end of this talk, Dr. A C Pandey invited
the faculty members for the use of this facility by
orienting their research by writing proposals as coordinated
research projects of DST. After this interaction, Prof AC
Pandey also discussed about the X-ray crystallography
techniques. He discussed the powder X-ray diffraction and
small angle X-ray scattering techniques in detail. He
described how XRD and SAXS techniques could be used in
determining crystal structure, crystallite size, particle
size, particle shape, particle size distribution. As an
example he showed different steps in indexing of any given
XRD pattern, steps for determining the lattice parameters,
crystallite size and strain. For the interest of
participants having biological background Prof. Pandey
showed the analysis and crystal structure determination of
double stranded DNA structure.
Ms Ranu K Dutta, Research Scientist at NAC-UoA, described
the applications of nanotechnology in various aspects of
life, focusing on biomedical applications. She started her
talk giving an introduction about nanobiotechnology and
differentiated it from bionanotechnology. She discussed
about how nanoparticles could be synthesized easily through
soft chemistry and discussed how nanoparticles could be
synthesized from biological resources. Her emphasis was on
bioinspired/biomimetic routes, describing the advantages of
such routes of synthesis. She elaborated on the use of
functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical
applications such as for MRI contrast agents in the field of
cancer diagnostics and purpose of targeted drug delivery. As
a case study on breast cancer cells, emphasis was given on
the effective use of the drug conjugated nanoparticles for
drug delivery applications. Ms. Dutta also discussed in
details about the effects of nanoparticles on human life and
the environment making people aware of the hazards of
nanoparticles as well.
A visit to XRD, TEM, UV-Visible-PL and SEM facilities for
Hands on training for operation and analysis was also made
under the guidance of Mr Prashant K Sharma and Mr
Raghvendra S Yadav.
The valedictory function brought the two day workshop
towards its end. A vote of thanks was proposed by Prof
Pandey. Prof Srivastava congratulated all the speakers and
participants for their dedicated participation leading to
the success of the event. The participants expressed their
views about their learning experiences through the lectures
and the techniques discussed. Some students wanted that they
should be given chances to attend such workshops more
frequently. Prof Pandey assured them that NAC-UoA would
conduct such events more frequently in upcoming time for
maximum benefit to the undergraduate, post graduate students
and young researchers including faculty members.
(e) Workshop on White LED’s (16-17, March, 2011) - A
two days Workshop on White LEDs’ was organized under the
joint auspices of The National Academy of Sciences, India
(Allahabad) and Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya
Vishwavidyalaya (M.G.C.G.V.), Chitrakoot, on 16-17th March,
2011. Prof. S.L. Srivastava, Coordinator, Science
Communication Programme, NASI was the Chief Guest; and Prof.
Abhai Mansingh, Formerly Professor of Physics and Director,
South Campus, Delhi University, Colonel Er. Ashok Mansingh,
I.I.Sc., Bangalore and Prof. C.K. Dwivedi, Department of
Electronics and Communication, J.K. Institute of Applied
Physics, University of Allahabad were the invited
distinguished speakers of the workshop. Dr. Niraj Kumar,
Executive Secretary, NASI conducted this programme on behalf
of the Academy. Prof. S.L. Srivastava delivered
key-note-address on Alternative Sources of Energy during the
inaugural session; and urged the participants to find some
innovative ideas other than that of ‘Faraday’s law of
electricity & magnetism’. He emphasized on generating energy
from solar system, wind mills, thunder storms etc. He
informed the participants that Prof. Abhai Mansingh has
termed Light Emitting Diode (LED) as Light Eliminating
Darkness. Prof. C. K. Dwivedi, while delivering his lecture
on “Energy Efficiency”, explained the functioning of
embedded white LEDs systems. He further dealt in detail
about the micro control tracking system of the solar panels
to increase its efficiency by almost 1.5 times and added
that using proper reflectors, we may harness the solar
energy and feed it to the grid system for the use of the
general mass, hopefully then the cost of solar electricity
will be affordable.
A view of the dais
during the Inaugural Function
; A view of the
(L to R) Prof. Abhai
Mansingh, Prof. S.L. Srivastava,
Prof. K.B. Pandey
and Prof. C.K. Dwivedi
The second session was focused on ‘Science and Technology in
India’. Prof. Abhai Mansingh, demonstrated that the white
LEDs are very energy efficient and if used on no profit no
loss basis may even be cheaper than the kerosene lamps.
Prof. Mansingh appealed that ‘we should opt for various
alternatives for solving the energy-crisis’, otherwise, as
we shall destroy our environment generating more and more of
conventional energy in order to meet the requirement of
modern civilization. It is, therefore, the duty of our
budding scientists to make continuous efforts for conserving
On the second day Prof. Ashok Mansingh imparted training to
about 80 selected participants comprising of Intermediate as
well as B. Tech. students, for “Fabrication of White LED’s”.
The students learnt several techniques on electronics
including soldering of electrical goods.
learning techniques on electronics including soldering of
The experts summarized that much of that electricity is
consumed by technologies that are outdated or inefficient.
Light emitting diode (LED) technology holds the promise of
replacing those technologies with a solid-state solution
that is long lasting, more efficient and has a lower total
cost of ownership. LEDs are emerging in the general
illumination market in applications ranging from commercial
down lights to outdoor street lamps. In parallel with this
nascent market penetration, LED researchers continue to make
significant technological breakthroughs that improve light
output, quality and efficiency while reducing cost.
Prof. Dwivedi further said that awareness for measuring
Lumen maintenance of LED Light Sources will enhance LED
technology for market adoption. Additional standards are
being developed by his own team at Department of Electronics
and Communication, J.K. Institute of Applied Physics,
University of Allahabad, which will further clarify and
improve methods of measuring LED product performance and
compatibility. Lighting through marketing campaigns, product
labeling, quality marks, understanding lumen packages and
some essential light quality issues will enable consumers to
make appropriate, informed choices, with the objective of
helping customers to recognize quality on the shelf. This
will certainly educate the consumers and eliminate the
darkness from greater parts of the rural India.
While concluding the valedictory session, the executives of
NASI, Allahabad and M.G.C.G.V. Chitrakoot proposed to set up
a “Rural Centre for Fabrication of White LEDs’ in M.G.C.G.V.
Chitrakoot; which would be an important asset of “Gramodyog”
for “Gramodaya”. While proposing vote-of-thanks, Prof.
Krishna B. Pandeya, Vice-Chancellor of the rural University
said that this University was founded by Nanasaheb Deshmukh
for the rural upliftment of the people; and this workshop
successively fulfilled one of the main objectives of this
(iii) National Technology Day (11th May 2011) on
“Technological Advancement & Environmental Safety – A
Prof. U.C. Srivastava delivering lecture on NTD
A vew of the dais
Like every year, this year also, the Academy celebrated the
National Technology Day. The technology day is celebrated in
our beloved country on 11th May every year to recall and
reaffirm our faith in the technological advancements,
achieved so far; as well as spread the message among the
students and general mass that how much technology is
important for overall development of the science and
society. A two days programme on May 11-12, 2011, was
inaugurated at NASI in which about 200 students from 11
schools of the districts Allahabad, Kaushambi and Pratapgarh
participated; they interacted with eminent technologists.
The purpose of this programme was to enthuse the students
about the India’s recent developments in the field of
“Science & Technology”.
Prof. S.L. Srivastava (top
left), Prof. C.B.L. Srivastava (top right), Prof. Nageshwar
Rao (bottom left), and audience (bottom right) during the
function of NTD
Dr. Niraj Kumar, Executive Secretary, NASI welcomed the
Chief-Guest and other distinguished persons present on this
occasion. Prof. U.C. Srivastava, Department of Zoology,
University of Allahabad, delivered the Inaugural speech on
“National Technology Day”, in this programme. Prof. S.L.
Srivastava, Formerly Head, Department of Physics, University
of Allahabad, presided over the Inaugural function and
delivered his lecture on “Some Advances in Technology”. The
eminent technologists briefly discussed about energy
sources, solar energy, nuclear energy, nuclear reactors of
India, thermal power stations, hydropower plants, wind power
plants, smart materials, robotics, remote sensing etc. Prof.
Nageshwar Rao, Vice-Chancellor, U.P. Rajarshi Tandon Open
University, Allahabad, addressed the audience as the invited
Chief-Guest on the “National Technology Day”. Prof. C.B.L.
Srivastava proposed a vote-of-thanks. Sri A.K. Srivastava,
Deputy Executive Secretary, NASI, Sri B.P. Singh, AES, NASI,
Dr. Santosh Shukla, AES, NASI, Ms. Pavitra Tandon, AES, NASI
and Dr, Chitranjan, DNA Club Project, actively participated
in this programme, along with other members of the staff as
Sri R.P. Tripathi, Sri Mohd. Ajmal, Sri I.D. Shukla, Sri
Milan Das and others. A quiz competition among the
participated students was also held; and the winners were
given prizes on May 12, 2011, during the valedictory
function of the programme. In the Valedictory function Prof.
Krishna Misra, General Secretary-HQ, NASI, delivered a
lecture on “Green Chemistry”. Prof. G.K. Srivastava,
Chairman, Allahabad Chapter, proposed vote-of-thanks in the
end of the Valedictory function.
(iv) A Report on Summer School and Vacation Training
Programme (2011) - The National Academy of Sciences,
India (NASI), like every year this year also jointly
organized 21 days Summer School (under Science Communication
Programme of NASI) and Vacation Training Programme (under
DNA Club Project) from June 4-24, 2011. The theme of this
year’s programme was ‘Advancements in Science & Technology
and Study of the natural resources’.
The hot spot of the natural resources (Nainital, Uttarakhand)
was, therefore, the ideal place to start with. The Inaugural
Function was held at Aryabhatta Research Institute of
Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital on June 5, 2011,
Prof. V. P. Sharma, ICMR Chair Distinguished Professor, NASI,
was the Chief Guest; and Prof. S. L. Srivastava,
Coordinator, Science Communication Programme, NASI presided
over the function. Prof. Ram Sagar, Director, ARIES
delivered the inaugural address. The other distinguished
persons present on the occasion were Prof. U. C. Srivastava,
Convener, Summer School, Dr. K.P. Singh, Dr. Sharda Sundaram,
Dr. Niraj Kumar, Executive Secretary, NASI, Dr. Santosh
Shukla, AES, NASI, Dr. Hum Chand, Dr. Manish Naja, Dr.
Abhisek Srivastava (Scientists from ARIES), the students and
teachers participants and NASI officials. Before the
Inaugural Function, the registration of the selected
participants from 25 districts of U.P., M.P. and Bihar was
done in the evening of 4th June, 2011 at Bareilly after a
formal gathering in the Guest House of Sri Hari Mandir,
Model Town, Bareilly. 110 teachers and students participated
in the program.
During the Inaugural Function Prof. Ram Sagar informed that
during this summer school programme at ARIES, Nainital, the
participants are to be made aware of the atmospheric studies
especially through the “Gangaes Valley Aerosol Experiments (GVAX)”.
He emphasized that Gangetic Basin experiences a mixture of
various aerosol types throughout the seasons; and these
aerosols make different types of impact on the formation of
clouds and energy transfer in the atmosphere. Data from GVAX
will allow us to test hypotheses such as whether warming by
black carbon aerosols will reduce cloud cover, and certain
changes in atmospheric chemistry may hinder the ability of
clouds to form on aerosol particles. Prof. V. P. Sharma
while making his remarks on the theme of “Advancement in
Science & Technology”, highlighted the aim of Summer School
to provide advanced workshop training in the study of
socio-scientific skills/techniques; and outlined the
remarkable milestones achieved by NASI under its Science
Communication Programme, which is providing a platform to
the students to interact with a number of internationally
renowned scholars from diversified fields in Science.
Chief Guest Prof .V.P.
Sharma addressing at ARIES Presidential
address being delivered by
Prof S.L. Srivastava at
Niraj Kumar, Prof.S.L. Srivastava, Prof. V.P. Sharma, Prof.
Ram Sagar and Prof. U.C. Srivastava (Left to right) on the
Prof. S. L. Srivastava delivered his presidential address
and emphasized that the increase in population,
environmental pollution and over exploitation of natural
resources are responsible for the global warming. He urged
the participants to prepare projects how to reduce the
demand of energy and increase the alternative eco-friendly
Prof. U. C. Srivastava, Convener of the Summer School
conducted the inaugural session and described in detail the
21 days activity map prepared for the school. He further
expressed that the participating students and teachers have
the opportunity to learn about the observational studies at
ARIES, as well as about the Aquatic, Hill & Forest
Biodiversity in and around Nainital. Dr. Niraj Kumar, PI,
DNA Club Project at NASI, expressed his deep gratitude
towards Dr. Ram Sagar, Director, ARIES; and proposed a
vote-of-thanks. After the inaugural session, the
participants were divided into two groups; and parallel
programmes for both the groups were organized from June 5-7,
On June 6, 2011; during the visit to the Atmospheric
Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile facility Centre,
participants were introduced to the US scientists and
practically observed the instrumentation and data
communications systems for climate studies. Students were
also involved in space-launching of specifically designed
balloon for data collection.
of ARM Mobile Facility at ARIES, Nainital
Launching of balloon
carrying electronic gadget for atmospheric data collection
To improve the knowledge base and interest of the young
talented students; and to attract them towards research in
these areas, distinguished scientists of ARIES & NASI,
delivered popular science lecture on the related topics.
The Night Time Sky Watching by the 104cm optical telescope,
known as the Sampurnanand telescope was the centre of
attraction for the participants for the photometric,
spectrophotometric and polarimetric observations. It was
equipped with modern instruments like cooled CCD camera,
spectrophotometer and filters etc. There was also a 15cm
Solar Tower Telescope equipped with Bernhard Halle Hα filter
and fast CCD Camera, for the study of solar flares.
104 cm. Optical telescope
observed by Prof. V.P. Sharma & Summer School/ VTP students
15cm Solar Tower Telescope
at ARIES; and Library being attended by Summer School/VTP
Dr. Manish Naja (ARIES) delivered his talk on “Air
Pollution, Green House Gases and Climate Change”. Dr Naja
described the aerosols as suspended particulates in the
atmosphere capable to modify the local climate through
different mechanisms. He also explained how to measure the
vertical distributions of ozone and meteorological
parameters using balloon-borne sensors.
Prof. Ram Sagar also delivered a lecture on “Optical
Telescope: An eye to sky since 1609”. Prof. Sagar introduced
the participants about the journey from the conventional
telescope to the modern telescope as well as its advantages
in the studies in Optical Astrophysics; and informed that
Ground based optical telescopes as big as ~ 40 meter are
being designed and ~ 100 meter are under planning.
Dr. Hum Chand, Scientist, ARIES, delivered his lecture on
“Stars. Galaxies and Cosmology: An Overview” and described
the origin, birth, growth, maturity and death of stars very
interestingly. During his lecture he highlighted the Stellar
Nursery, Red Gaints, Supernova types of Galaxies, Universe
expansion and its composition, Dark Matter and Dark Energy;
and Carrier in Astronomy. This lecture was followed by an
audio-visual show on ‘Magic Year (Jadueevars), A documentary
film on A. Einstein’.
Dr. Abhishek Srivastava while delivering his talk on
“Transient Phenomena and Magnetic Waves in the Sun and
Sun-like Stars”, discussed the recent observational
discoveries, modern data analysis techniques and theoretical
modeling; and the future perspective in Astrophysics.
Simultaneously, the demonstrations of Solar Observatory
during the open sky in the day and night time were also
Prof. V. P. Sharma delivered a lecture on “Forest Malaria”
and revealed that a significant effect of moon phase on
light-trap catch of Anopheles species has been
observed during an in depth study carried out in the forest
belt of Madhya Pradesh, India, inhabited by tribal people.
Thus, he highlighted the significance of regional
biodiversity and further inspired the participants to study
hill and forest biodiversity of the different
stretches/climatic zones of India. A project of herbarium
preparation on the theme of “Hill and Forest Biodiversity in
and around Nainital” was assigned to the participants; and
accordingly the participants studied the floral diversity
and collected characteristic samples for their project work.
Prof. S. L. Srivastava delivered a talk on “Life in the
Universe?”. While delivering his talk on “Antioxidant”,
Prof. U. C. Srivastava mentioned the role of beta-carotene,
lycopene, carotenoids, melatonin; and concluded that
antioxidant nutrients are responsible for prevention of
diseases and aging in human beings.
Dr. Sharda Sundaram of Ewing Christian College, Allahabad
delivered her talk on “Chemical aspects of biodiversity” and
expressed concern over the toxic discharges in terms of
heavy metals, organic chemicals, and suspended sediments
usually found in industrial and municipal effluents that are
discharged directly into water-bodies, which can inversely
impact the biota (living organisms) in an ecosystem by
killing them, weakening them, or affecting their ability to
carry out essential biological functions (feeding,
After reaching Allahabad, the participants visited the Ganga-gallery,
NASI Allahabad; and they were excited to get immense
information on socio-scientific and cultural heritage of the
Holy River Ganges, on 11th June, 2011. The theme of visit to
“Ganga-gallery” was mainly “awareness, conservation and
restoration of the river Ganges”. After completing the
visit, the participants were assigned several topics to
prepare environment related projects on the river Ganges.
The topics were i) Social and religious importance of river
Ganges, ii) Scientific analysis of the river water, iii)
Socio-eco-cultural heritage of the river Ganges, iv) Ganga
river and its ecosystem; and v) Pollution of Ganga river and
In the second phase, basic concepts in Science & Technology
were discussed, in order to equip the participants to
understand the advancements in Science & Technology.
Therefore, the group was divided into Physical & Biological
Sciences streams during June 12-15, 2011.
Under the Mathematical session Prof. Sunder Lal,
Vice-Chancellor, VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur
delivered his lecture on “RSA numbers”. Prof. M.A. Pathan,
AMU, Aligarh, Prof. P.G. Romeo (Cochin University), Prof.
Rajiv Kumar Srivastava (HOD, Dr. BRA Agra University), Prof.
I. Pandey (Dayalbagh University), Prof. Pankaj Srivastava (MNNIT,
Allahabad) delivered their lectures on mathematical
functions & its applications. The participants learnt
mathematical modeling for better understanding of science.
Lecture on Maths by Prof.
Sunder Lal VC ,Purvanchal University and Participants asking
questions in the Mathematical workshop
In the Biological Sciences stream, several lectures were
delivered by the experts of Plant Sciences as well as of
Animal Sciences from June 13-15, 2011. Under Plant Sciences
stream, lectures were delivered by Prof. J.S. Singh, CAS in
Botany, BHU, Varanasi (on ‘Biodiversity: An Overview’),
Prof. G. K. Srivastava, Ex Head, Dept. of Botany, University
of Allahabad (UoA) (on ‘The Genetic Makeup-Genome and its
Intricacies’), Prof. D. K. Chauhan, Dept. of Botany, UoA (on
‘Biodiversity & Hot spots’), Ms. Archana Pant, IASc
Allahabad (on ‘Development of Fodder Products’).
Under Animal Sciences stream, lectures were delivered by
Prof. U.C. Srivastava (on ‘Animal Biodiversity’), Prof. V.
C. Srivastava (on ‘Insect Biodiversity’), Dr. Anis F. Rizvi,
IASc, Allahabad (on ‘Fish Products’) and Dr P. P. Srivastava,
National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow (on ‘Fish
Biodiversity & Fish Feed’) from June 13-15, 2011. Prof. U.
C. Srivastava also mentioned oncology, gene therapy,
communicable diseases and antioxidants; and the participants
learnt the staining, mounting and microscopic examination
techniques in his laboratory at the Zoology Department,
University of Allahabad.
Lecture on biodiversity by
Prof. J.S. Singh (BHU) and Lecture on Genome by Prof. G.K.
Again after having the basic concepts in Physical and
Biological Sciences, the group was merged on June 16, 2011;
and lectures were organized on ‘Recent Developments in
Physics’. Prof. Suresh Chandra, BHU, Varanasi delivered a
talk on ‘Missing Electric Circuits Elements and Nano-materials’,
Prof. S. L. Srivastava, on ‘Electromagnetic Radiation’, Dr.
Ambarish Chandra, IIT, Kharagpur on ‘New Energy Generation &
Storage Technology’, Dr. Kailash Uttam, demonstrated and
provided hand on practice on ‘Experiment on Spectrometer’ in
Physics Department, UoA, Prof. C. K. Dwivedi, Department of
Electronics and Communication, UoA gave a lecture on ‘White
LEDs and its Efficiency’ and Dr O. P. Gupta, Jamuna
Christian College, Allahabad demonstrated ‘Low cost
experiments on Physics’ and explained the inherent concepts.
Workshop inaugurated by Prof. Suresh Chandra (BHU) and
Lecture being delivered
by Prof. S.L. Srivastava (UoA)
workshop by Prof. C.K. Dwivedi (UoA) and Workshop on
by Dr. O.P. Gupta,
In the evening of 16th June, 2011, a meeting on Science
Story Writing/Telling was also held in the presence of Prof.
Suresh Chandra, Prof. S. L. Srivastava, Prof. U. C.
Srivastava, Prof. Krishna Misra, Dr. Ambrish Chandra, Dr.
Sharda Sundaram, Dr. Niraj Kumar and other NASI officials,
to devise and decide the modalities to organize such a
program in the near future.
On the evening of 17th June, 2011, the participants went on
an educational tour for studying the simian diversity and
medicinal plant diversity at Chitrakoot under the guidance
of Dr. Niraj Kumar, PI, DNA Club Project and Dr. Ramesh
Chandra, Head, Zoology Department; MGCGVV, Chitrakoot. The
projects on “Biodiversity of Medicinal Plants in Aarogyadham,
Chitrakoot” were assigned to the students. They came back in
the night of June 19, 2011 after completing their project
work on medicinal plants.
On 20th June, 2011, addressing the first session of the
Workshop on Biotechnology on the theme of ‘Recent
Development in Biochemistry & Biotechnology’, Prof. Krishna
Misra (Coordinator, Indo-Russian Centre for Biotechnology at
IIIT, Allahabad; and General Secretary, NASI) delivered her
lecture on “History of DNA”. Describing the hunger crisis in
Asia, she further suggested that only biotechnology can help
us for solving the problem of food scarcity; and the food
crop productivity can be enhanced through the application of
biotechnology. In the second session, Prof. Bechan Sharma
(Former Head, Dept. of Biochemistry, UoA) delivered his
lecture on “Transgenic Plants”. Prof. Sharma further
highlighted the role and importance of transgenic plants in
designing and development of disease, drought and pest
resistant plants/crops with higher yield potential. Dr.
Abhay Pandey (Dept. of Biochemistry, UoA) explained the ‘DNA
Technology’ on the same day; and demonstrated the extraction
of DNA practically from the cotyledons of gram and taught
the participants to extract DNA without using sophisticated
instruments. These lectures-cum-workshops were followed by
the interactive sessions.
Lectures-cum-Workshop on Agriculture was conducted on 21st
June, 2011 under the guidance of Prof. M. M. Verma (Ex
Director, Sheila Dhar Institute of Soil Science, Dept. of
Chemistry, UoA), Dr. A.K. Srivastava, Krishi Vigyan Kendra,
Kaushambi and Dr. Chitranjan Kumar. Experts delivered their
lectures on Advancement in Agricultural Sciences &
Technology, Vermicomposting, Soil Fertility & its
Sustainability. The participants learnt simple techniques of
preparing vermicompost & its applications in the
The Chemical Sciences workshop was conducted from June
21-22, 2011. Dr. Sharada Sundaram presented her
lecture-cum-demonstration on ‘Air Pollution’. She imparted
training to the students for testing air pollution caused by
several automobiles; and the participants prepared
assignments on air pollution. In the second session, Dr.
Mohd Masood conducted the testing of food-adulteration in
oil, ghee, milk, spices, sweets, khoya and tea leaves with
the help of his food-adulteration testing kit; followed by
water quality testing. His experiments were an eye-opener
for all the participants, as the results warned them to use
the food items and drinking water cautiously.
On the evening of 22nd June, 2011, all the participants
visited Jawahar Planetarium, Anand Bhawan, Allahabad under
the guidance of Sri Pramod Pande (Director, Jawahar
Planetarium, Anand Bhawan). Sri Pande delivered an
interactive lecture with the planetarium show. The
planetarium virtually took the participants for a celestial
trip; and the participants also measured their weight
theoretically on Moon and Jupiter.
On 23rd June, 2011, the participants were exposed to
interactive session with eminent experts like Prof. V. P.
Sharma (Chief Guest), Dr. I.K. Patro, Dr. Nisha Patro, Prof.
U. C. Srivastava, Dr. Sharda Sundaram, Dr. Pramod Pandey and
Dr. Manvendra Tripathi. They interacted on several aspects
of Health & Communicable Diseases, Disease Diagnostics &
Control, Climate Change and its impact on Biodiversity as
well as on Human health etc. Experts were of the opinion
that vaccination at appropriate time is the need of hour to
save against various diseases like chickengunia, Japanese
encephalitis, polio, hepatitis etc.
Prof.U.C. Srivastava, Prof.
V.P. Sharma, Prof. I .Patro and Prof. Krishna Misra (L to R)
on the dais during Interactive Session with the children
A book entitled “Paryavaran Pradushan Ke Khatre”, prepared
by the DNA Club, Allahabad and published by the Global
Green, Allahabad, was also released by Prof. V. P. Sharma on
23rd June, 2011; on the eve of Valedictory Function of the
Summer School/ VTP.
V.P. Sharma releasing a book prepared by DNA Club & Global
On 24th June, 2011, the valedictory session of the Summer
School/ VTP was marked by an informative lecture by Prof.
Kailash Chand Gupta, Director, IITR, Lucknow (Chief Guest)
on ‘Uses and applications of multi-dimensional modern
techniques of Nanotechnology’. Dr. Gupta explained that new
instruments of nano dimensions are being prepared with the
help of atomic studies, which will revolutionize various
fields of medicine, defense research, optics and bio-energy.
The valedictory session was chaired by Prof. V. P. Sharma;
and Prof. S.L. Srivastava gave the concluding remarks.
Before the onset of the Valedictory Function, Prof. Krishna
Misra welcomed the guests in the last session of the Summer
School/ VTP; and Prof. U. C. Srivastava proposed a
vote-of-thanks in the end. The following students bagged
prizes on the basis of their good work evaluated by the
experts for the different projects.
Studies of Hill Biodiversity in & around Nainital
(June 4-10, 2011):
Deeksha Singh (Umrao Singh Memorial School, Allahabad- Ist )
Shubham Kumar Sharma (Parkar Inter College, Moradabad-IInd)
Kuldeep Shukla (D.A.V. Inter College, Mehdawal, S K
Annu Kumari (Umarao Singh Memorial School, Allahabad-IVth)
Saeed-ul-Islam (Parkar Inter College, Moradabad-Vth)
Projects on Ganga River (Natural Resources Contest)
(June 11-17, 2011):
Deeksha Singh (Umrao Singh Memorial School, Allahabad- Ist)
Abhishek Agnihotri C.P.V.N., Kamiganj, Farrukhabad- IInd)
Shantanu Das (Anglo Bengali Inter College, Allahabad- IIIrd)
Arushi Tripathi (Bishop Johnson School & College, Allahabad-
Shashiraj Singh (Central Academy Higher Secondary School,
Projects on Biodiversity at Aarogyadham, Chitrakoot
(June 18-19, 2011):
Sandeep Kumar (Vishnu Inter College, Bareilly- Ist ),
Abhishek Agnihotri (C.P. Vidya Niketan Inter College,
Kaimganj, Farrukhabad- IInd);
Air Pollution (Physical Sciences Contest (June 22, 2011)
Varun Mishra (DAV Inter College, Mehdawal, Sant Kabir
Vedika (Jagat Taran Golden Jubilee School, Allahabad- IInd),
Zainul Abdeen (Anglo Bengali Inter College, Allahabad- IIIrd),
Annu Kumari (Umarao Singh Memorial School, Allahabad- IVth),
Mukesh Prajapati (D G I College, Pilibhit- Vth).
Sri. Prasanna Kumar Ghosh (Lecturer, ABIC, Allahabad) was
adjudged the best teacher escort of the programme. The
certificates of participation, pollution kit and food
adulteration kit were distributed among the participant
teachers of the schools.
Valedictory function being
addressed by Prof. V.P. Sharma
Winners of the Summer
School/ VTP 2011 along with distinguished guests of NASI
(v) Chaupals : (a) On ‘Health, Energy & their
Alternatives’ (March 13-14, 2011) - A Chaupal on
‘Health, Energy & their Alternatives’ was organized in
Ghaziabad village of Fatehpur district, Uttar Pradesh, on
13-14th March, 2011, to aware the local women and farmers to
adopt and prepare white LEDs, solar lamps, wind mills,
bio-fuels, biopesticides like neembine, pyrethrin, and
organic farming, for their improved standard of their
livelihood. Some basic primary health problems and services
regarding symptoms of water-borne-diseases and doses of
medicines were also discussed. Prof. S.L. Srivastava,
Coordinator, Science Communication Programme, NASI, presided
over the Chaupal and Prof. Abhai Mansingh, Formerly
Professor of Physics and Director, South Campus, Delhi
University, was the Chief Guest of the occasion. Dr. Niraj
Kumar, Executive Secretary, NASI, Dr. K.P. Singh, Zoology
Department, University of Allahabad, Dr. A.F. Rizvi, The
Institute of Applied Sciences (IASc), Allahabad and Mrs
Archana Pant, IASc, were some other distinguished speakers
of the occasion. This Chaupal discussed a central point of
knowledge dissemination and communication; consultancy,
pharmacy services, good-quality affordable basic diagnostic
services. The modern and popular secondary and tertiary
healthcare like telemedicine services, that provides access
to qualified doctors and specialists, were also discussed.
The experts were of the opinion that through the
telemedicine service, villagers would be able to interact
directly with specialists using videoconference for curative
purposes. They called upon the villagers to carry on their
responsibilities for mobilizing the community, treating
common ailments, conducting household surveys, monitoring
health profiles, and improving public education and
awareness of the local region; and learn/use information
technology for preventive and curative health disorders; and
their simple remedies for localized ailments.
Prof. Abhai Mansingh, discussed about white LEDs lamps and
said that these are very energy efficient and if used on no
profit no loss basis may even be cheaper than the kerosene
lamps. He appealed that ‘we should opt for various
alternatives for solving the energy-crisis’, otherwise, we
shall destroy our environment generating more and more of
conventional energy in order to meet the requirement of
(b) On ‘Pollution and Health’ (October 2-3, 2011) –
Another Chaupal was held recently in the first week of
October at Deoria, UP and its suburb focusing on pollution
and health. The Chaupal was addressed by Prof. (Mrs.)
Krishna Misra, Coordinator, Indo-Russian Centre for
Biotechnology, Dr. Sharada Sundaram and Dr. Niraj Kumar.
The chaupal was organized by the Princiapls of Prestige
Intermediate College, Deoria and Janta Intermediate College,
Parsia, Deoria; and both the chaupals were coordinated by
Dr. Santosh Shukla, Asstt. Executive Secretary, NASI.
(vi) Winter School of NASI (21-23rd January, 2011) at RSC,
Lucknow - A three days programme- “Winter School of NASI”
was inaugurated at Regional Science City, Lucknow, on
January 21st, 2011, under the gracious presence
of renowned chemists like Prof. Krishna Misra, General
Secretary, NASI (Expert of Natural Products); Prof. C.L.
Khetrapal, Director, CBMR, SGPGI, Lucknow; Prof. D.S.
Bhakuni, CDRI, Lucknow (Expert of Supra-molecular
Structure), Prof. P.C. Srivastava, University of Lucknow,
Lucknow (Expert of Organo-metallic) and Dr. Alok Dhawan,
Scientist, Developmental Toxicology Division, IITR, Lucknow,
to celebrate the beginning of the year 2011 as an
International Year of Chemistry (IYC-2011).
Dr. Alok Dhawan conducted the programme. Prof. C.L.
Khetralpal delivered his talk on importance of Chemistry in
daily life starting from a thermometer to NMR
instrumentation. Prof. D.S. Bhakuni delivered his talk on
Basic Structure of Food Items like Glucose and Fructose,
highlighting the significance of understanding of Chemistry.
He further discussed ‘Biosynthesis- how nature binds and
breaks’ and thereby inculcated curiosity among the
participants. He also said that nature is unlimited from
curiosity point of view. While critically analyzing the
advantages and disadvantages of drugs he said that Morphin,
a pain reliever, may also create chance of addiction. Dr.
Bhakuni also discussed about Bond breaking and Energy in an
easily understandable manner. Prof. P.C. Srivastava started
his lecture with hypothesis of ‘Chemidas’ (an ancient
Chemist) to transform copper into gold. He discussed the
periodic tables starting from Labosier’s 20 elements to the
modern 114 elements; X-rays and curable diseases like TB. He
further gave an example of Alexander Fleming and Penicillin
discovery to inspire the young scientists to contribute to
Prof. Krishna Misra delivered her welcome address starting
with her informative lecture on International Year of
Chemistry-2011. She discussed about the role of chemistry in
food, drug, cloth, brushing, soap, road, housing etc and
said that nothing can be imagined without Chemistry. She
briefly discussed about Proteomics & Genomics. The
participants from 20 DNA club schools of NASI coming from
U.P., M.P, and Bihar, prominently from DAV School Siwan,
Golden Jubilee Allahabad, Bonanza Higher Secondary School
Satna, asked several questions during the interactive
22nd January, 2011 : The theme of the second day of
‘Winter School of NASI’ was “Health and Alternative
Medicine”. The panel of scientists comprised of- Prof. S.S.
Agrawal, Former Director, SGPGI; Dr. Girish Gupta, Chief
Consultant, Gaurang Medical Research, Centre for Homeopathy
Research; Dr. Awadhesh Mishra, Vice-President, All India
Nature Care Association; Prof. K.K. Pandey, Vice Principal,
National Veterinary Aryurvedic Research Institute; Prof. B.N.
Singh, Director, Directorate of Homeopathy; and Dr. Anand
Akhila, Scientist, Centre Institute of Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants, Lucknow. Prof. Subramanium Churamani Gopal,
Vice-Chancellor, CSSMU was the Chief Guest of the function.
Dr. Akhila Anand conducted the whole programme on the second
day. Sri Samarendra Kumar, Project Coordinator, RSC, Lucknow
introduced Dr Anand Akhila (M. Sc. Gold Medalist from
University of Lucknow; Ph. D., London; Scientist, CIMAP;
CSIR Young Scientist Awardee; Member, Royal Association of
London). While conducting the Winter School, Dr. Anand
introduced each of the aforesaid medical experts describing
their expertise in-depth.
Prof. S.S. Agrawal started his lecture with the new
definition of Health by WHO, as Health is a state of
complete mental, physical, social and spiritual well being.
He discussed about Dr. Haniman’s discovery of Homeopathy. He
briefly described the diagnosis for diseases and
personality. Prof. Agrawal further said that Promotive
Medicine may be the future of Medical Science, which would
be prescribed after the depiction of Genomic structure of
particular human being.
Dr. B.N. Singh, discussed about Modern Medicine in Allopath
as different medicine than that of past. He said that
Hippocratic medicine (5th Century B.C.) originated the
modern medicine and it’s development initiated from 13-14th
Century. Then, understanding of Anatomy of Human Physiology
evolved. The real revolution started after 19th Century. The
total Genome of human became known by 2003. He further said
that new discovery has no boundary; and it has openness and
acceptance all over the world. The scope is beyond
imagination for Nanotechnology and Medicine.
Dr. Awadhesh Mishra delivered his talk on ‘Nature Care:
Naturopathy and Yoga’, and said that violation of nature is
the primary cause of mental stress in human life. He also
urged the students to opt for Bachelor in Naturopathy and
Yoga Science (BNYS). For further information and awareness
he suggested the participants to write to Natural Institute
of Naturopathy (NIN), Pune. Prof. K.K. Pandey delivered his
lecture on Ayurvedic Science. He said that it is the science
of age. He emphasized on inculcating and propagating
Traditional Indian Medicine which is completely based on
Nature. He highlighted that Vedas are actually not a
religious book but a creation of special science. Prof.
Subramanian (Vice-Chancellor, CSSMU, Lucknow) delivered her
talk as a Chief Guest of the occasion. She remembered the
dignity, knowledge and culture of the ancient India during
the peak period of Takshashila and Nalanda University, She
presented the comment of Huyensang with his experienced
visit to India and quoted his views - “Every Indian is
specialized worker with high moral character”. She said that
it was Indian culture who forced WHO to include spirituality
in the definition of health. After these lectures, “Face to
Face Meet with Medical Scientists” - an interactive session,
was followed. Answering the several queries of the
participants like what is Aromatic, is there any drug to
become immortal, what is biotechnology etc, the panel of
experts satisfied their quench. These experts conclude that
millions of molecules interact with each other to form the
conditions of Health and Disease. The study of Molecular
Medicine, beyond Molecular structure (Supra-molecular
structure) and systemic biology contains huge scope in
future. Dr. S. Majumdar, Curator, RSC proposed
vote-of-thanks in the end.
In the evening Dr. Amita Kannaujiya, Department of Zoology,
University of Lucknow delivered a lecture on “Vulture”. All
the experts including Dr. Kannaujiya were welcomed through
an innovative way by presenting potted medicinal plants
(like Aloe vera, a moisturizing medicinal herb). She
presented her research experience around the Bundelkhand
region of U.P. She easily distinguished between the
characters of the behaviour of Vulture, Eagle and Hawk.
Pointing out the reasons for extinction of vultures she said
that (a) Very slow rate of breeding (only one egg in one
season) and (b) Use of Diclofenac (a drug given to livestock
as pain killer, belong to non-steroidal anti inflammatory
group of drugs or NSAIDS), are the main cause of concern.
She further said that vulture is incinerators (nature’s
disposal squad) and good bio-indicator. She informed that
out of 22 kinds of vultures (15 old and 7 new), Gips
vultures are highly susceptible. Her study also showed that
high temperature during the summer season is also a cause of
concern for their death. Dr. Niraj Kumar, Executive
Secretary, NASI proposed a vote-of-thanks to the eminent
experts, local organizers, participants of DNA club schools
and to the NASI officials, for making this ‘Winter School of
NASI’ a remarkable moment for the participants and a grand
success for the organizers.
The participants of Winter School of NASI watched Science
Gallery and 3-D Show at Regional Science City, Lucknow,
during January 21-22, 2011, under the guidance of Sri
Samarendra Kumar and Sri S. Chatterjee.
23rd January, 2011 : On the concluding day of ‘Winter
School of NASI’, Dr. Brajesh Pandey, Assistant Professor,
IIT Raibareily, conducted several experiments on physics
(based on principles of siphon, centre of mass & gravity,
match box coin experiments in mechanics, conservation of
momentum, Bernoulli’s Theorem, velocity of rocket launching
etc), at the Seminar Hall of Literacy House, Manas Nagar,
Lucknow. Dr. Ashwini Kumar Sharma, Chief Conservationist,
Govt. of U.P., was the Chief Guest in the concluding
session. He started his interesting talk on ‘Conservation
of Biodiversity: Message through Stories’ with a popular
Sanskrit slogan- “Prithwi Shanti, Antariksh Shanti,
Banaspatayah Shanti”. He further said that the theme of
Prithwi Shanti was nothing but the message for the
conservation of biodiversity; because without conservation
of biodiversity, ‘Prithwi Shanti’ cannot be imagined. He
provided the scientific facts behind the biodiversity
conservation through religious books; and described Manu,
Noor and Noha, as the originator of biodiversity in the
religious books of Hindus, Muslims and Christian,
respectively. Dr. Sharma also focused on his recently
ongoing projects especially on carbon sequestration by
Bamboo trees. Dr. Niraj Kumar proposed heartiest gratitude
towards Dr. Sharma, who delivered his lecture on the theme
of the DNA Club Project and also for gracing the valedictory
function of the “Winter School of NASI” as the Chief Guest.
(vii) National Science Day Celebrations; and related
programmes - The National Academy of Sciences, India (NASI)
organized the Science week from February 24 – 28, 2011 in
the Academy’s Auditorium at Allahabad. Prior to this, the
District Level Science contests were also held in the second
and third weeks of February 2011, to select the participants
from Allahabad District for the State Level contests.
The Science week was inaugurated by Prof. Suresh Chandra,
NASI-Senior Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow & Formerly
Professor in the Physics Department, BHU, Varanasi, on 24th
February, 2011 with more than 33 district level selected
teams from Uttar Pradesh for participation in different
contests, as Science Quiz, Debate, Oration and Exhibition.
The topics of debate, oration and exhibition were :
Debate: Science, per se is Ethical
Oration: Water Management is the need of hour
Working Model: Measurements in Science
Non-working Model: Sewage Treatment
During the Science Week, a workshop on “Health” was
also organized from February 25–27, 2011, inaugurated by Dr.
Shobhit Chawla, Medical Director & Chief, Vitreoretinal
Services, Prakash Netra Kendra, Lucknow. Dr. Chawla also
delivered an illustrative lecture on “Science, Medicine &
National Level Scientific Writing Contest was held on
26th February,2011; the topic was “Ever Green Revolution”
National Science Day Function (28th February, 2011)
was graced by Prof. Ashok Misra, Past President, NASI &
Former Director, IIT, Bombay as the Chief Guest. Several
prizes were given to the winners of the different State &
National Level contests; and the NASI Science Teacher Awards
were also given during the function on National Science Day.
NASI Science Teacher Awardees:
Dr. Shripal Rathi (M.G.Public School, Muzaffarnagar)
Dr. Naresh Kumar Giri (Kendriya Vidyalaya, Ghaziabad)
Allahabad Region NASI Science Teacher Awardee:
(The Award has been instituted in the memory of Late Rama
Dr. Sharad Kumar Pandey (Tagore Public School, Allahabad)
Results of Science Communication Contests-2011
(A) National Level (for undergraduate students) –
National Level Scientific writing Contest
First-Siddharth Prabhar –University of Agricultural
Second-Shalini Umrao- (C.M.P. Degree College, Allahabad)
Third-Ms.Tejasvi Sekar- Dr. M.G.R. University, Chennai
(B) State Level (for upto +2 level students)
State Level Science Oration
First-Ms. Urvashi Vashist –Delhi Public School (Bulandshahar)
Second-Ms. Shivanuj Srivastava (Allahabad)
Second-Km. Gargi (Meerut)
State Level Science Debate
First-Ashish Kumar Mishra (Chitrakoot)
Second-Aarti Saxena (Meerut)
State Level Science Quiz
a. Avinash Pandey
b. Shubham Mangalam Dubey
c. Vivek Ranjan
a. Ajay Chauhan-J.N.V., Etah
b. Adarsh Kashyap- Govt. Inter College
c. Pavnesh Kumar-Govt. Inter College
State Level science Exhibition
(a) Working Model
First- Nafees Ansari-(St. Thomas Inter College, Jaunpur)
Satya Pal Gupta
Second- Ashutosh Kumar Dubey (V.N. Govt. Inter College
Manas Singh- (D.P.S. Buladshahar)
(b) Non-Working Model
First- Diksha Singh – (Umrao Singh Memorial School,
Pratima Verma – (Umrao Singh Memorial School,
Second- Venkatesh Singh – (BNSD Shiksha Niketan Inter
(c ) Chart
First- Km. Khushboo Gangal - (SKMG Inter College, Meerut)
Second- Meena Singh – (Allahabad)
Second-Zainub Siddiqui – (SVMPVPGirls Inter College-Hardoi)
(C) District Level (for +2 level students) -
Physical sciences & Computer Sciences
First- Ankur Jaiswal-( Jagat taran Golden Jubilee School)
Second- Somesh Pandey- (M.P.V.M., Gangagurukulam)
Third- Chandan Singh-(M.P.V.M.)
First- Azimuddin- (St. Joseph’s College)
Second-Kritank Mishra-(M.L. Convent)
Third-Agrima Bansal-(M.P.V.M., Allahabad)
First- Utkarsh Srivastava-St. Joseph’s College, Allahabad)
Second- Chandan singh-(M.P.V.M., Allahabad)
Third- Sunny Jaiswal-(Bal Bharti School, Allahabad)
(viii) Interactive Sessions with Nobel Laureate (8-9th
March, 2011) at School of Tele-medicine, SGPGIMS, Lucknow
and NASI, Allahabad - The DNA Club, RRA, NASI, Allahabad
organized a two days programme- “Interactive Sessions with
Nobel Laureate”, inaugurated at School of Tele-medicine,
SGPGIMS, Lucknow, on March 8, 2011, under the gracious
presence of renowned Nobel Laureate (awarded Nobel Prize in
Chemistry in 1991) Prof. Richard Robert Ernst, Emeritus
Professor, ETH Zurich; Prof. Krishna Misra, General
Secretary-HQ, NASI (Expert of Natural Products and
Biotechnology); Prof. C.L. Khetrapal, Director, CBMR, SGPGI,
Lucknow, Formerly Vice-Chancellor, University of Allahabad;
Prof. S.K. Mishra, Head, Department of Endocrine Surgery,
Nodal Officer Telemedicine, SGPGIMS (Endocrine Surgeon); and
many others distinguished Scientists, to celebrate the
foundation eve of SGPGIMS. Prof. C.L. Khetrapal presided
over the inaugural session and welcomed the Chief Guest,
Prof. Ernst, other distinguished guests; and the
participants of DNA Club Schools from U.P., M.P. and Bihar.
He introduced the esteemed speaker Nobel Laureate Prof.
Ernst; and outlined the activities of SGPGIMS. He quoted
that “It is an Institute with tradition of excellence, have
demonstrated abundantly that research enhances the vitality
of teaching, teaching lifts the standards of service, and
service opens new avenues of investigation, especially in
the field of Tele-medicine.”
Prof. Ernst while speaking on “Passion and Responsibility”
shared the experiences of research while working in
collaboration with Indian scientists. He also elaborated the
breakthrough of his life, how he chosen Chemistry as passion
and a responsibility at the same time. He said that a
scientist has great responsibility to make adequate research
which would be beneficial for the general masses. He truly
justified his great potential and wisdom by virtue of his
vital stamina, great personality, broad knowledge &
communication skills in every sphere of Science, Culture and
Tradition throughout his informative, inspiring and thought
provoking lecture lasting for three sessions. It’s why he
has become an Ideal Role Model for millions of young minds
across the globe. Prof. Ernst quoted that we need science
for bright future, we must complete our responsibilities for
bright present and we must learn from our glorious past.
Nobel Laureate Prof.
Richard R. Ernst
On the second day (i.e. 9th March, 2011) of the interactive
session, Prof. Krishna Misra, delivered an informative
lecture on “Biotechnology and Bio-diversity”, at the
Auditorium of NASI, Allahabad. She focused her lecture on
‘Sustainability for Biodiversity & Responsibility for
Ourselves’. She said that biotechnology is an emerging area
of science; and appealed that environmental protection
(bio-safety) should be considered at global level. She
informed that the transgenic crops, along with traditional
breeding, molecular breeding and other innovative
alternatives, should be used for sustainable agriculture to
meet the increasing food, feed and fiber demand of the
growing population of India. She also stressed the need for
GM crops which are already in use and which are proposed to
be introduced, should be continuously studied for
environmental and health effects.
Prof. U.C. Srivastava, Senior Professor, Department of
Zoology, University of Allahabad delivered realistic and
appealing lecture on “antioxidants as boon to life” during
the concluding session of the interactive programme with the
DNA Club students. He informed that there are two types of
radicals in human body, one is harmful chemical complexes
known as free radicals which are also called oxidants; and
another is beneficial and is known as antioxidants. We can
prevent our stress condition and aging with proper use of
antioxidants from the natural vegetative sources in our
diet. Prof. Srivastava highlighted the significant role of
vitamin C, vitamin E, and mineral selenium etc. He also
created awareness among the participants against the
unhygienic conditions like pollution and poor sanitation. He
advised to take nutritious fruits and green vegetables
especially spinach, carrot, cauliflower, beans, potato,
pumpkin, almond, lemon, water-melon, moringa etc. He was of
the opinion that we can improve our quality of life-span and
remain healthy by maintaining the metabolism of our body;
and also, by keeping it free from harmful toxins.
A Pre-Meeting of VTP was also organized at NASI, Allahabad
on March 9, 2011. It was proposed to hold a VTP during June
4-24, 2011, at NASI, Allahabad. The theme of the proposed
VTP was “Science and Technology for Development”.
(ix) Science Extension Lectures
A Report on lectures delivered by Prof. V.P. Sharma, ICMR
Chair Distinguished Professor of NASI - Two lectures
(delivered by Prof. V.P. Sharma), both followed by
interactive sessions, were held under the DNA Club programme
of the Academy on 11th December at Pratapgarh and 13th
December, 2010 at NASI, Allahabad.
On Saturday, December 11, 2010, Prof. V.P. Sharma delivered
an informative lecture on ‘The Challenge of Sustainable
Malaria Control’ at Prabhat Academy, Pratapgarh. Addressing
the assembly of students and teachers Prof. Sharma said that
global warming is responsible for mosquitogenic condition (favourable
for mosquito breeding). Dr. Manvendra Tripathi (Malaria
Division, U.P.) emphasized on preventive measures including
Poster display and Prabhat rally in the Malaria-prone areas
in U.P. to check the menace of diseases like malaria,
chickengunya, filaria, Japanese encephalitis etc.
On Monday, December 13, 2010, a detailed lecture with an
hour of Interactive Session was organized on the
communicable diseases & related topics at 11 am in the
Auditorium of the Academy at 5, Lajpatrai Road, Allahabad.
The lecture was delivered by Prof. V.P. Sharma, focusing on
the causes and spread of these dreaded diseases; as well as
he also explained the preventive mechanisms by which we may
safeguard ourselves from the fatal impact of this menace.
Prof Sharma further emphasized the role of preventive
measures and stressed on adopting By-pass Desert Coolers
instead of conventional coolers to restrict the growth of
mosquitoes, the vector for all above mentioned diseases.
Before the lecture, Prof S.L. Srivastava, Coordinator of the
Science Communication Programme of the Academy welcomed the
students, teachers, Fellows, Members and other distinguished
guests of the Academy. Prof Krishna Misra, General
Secretary, NASI, introduced the speaker; and Dr. Niraj
Kumar, Executive Secretary of the Academy, conducted the
interactive Session. In the end, Prof U.C. Srivastava,
Treasurer of the Academy expressed a vote-of-thanks. Among
other prominent scientists attending the function were Prof
C.B.L. Srivastava, Prof G.K. Srivastava, Dr. K.P. Singh, Dr.
Manvendra Tripathi and Dr. Md. Masood. The function was
coordinated by Sri A.K.. Srivastava (Dy. Executive
Secretary) and Sri B.P. Singh (Asstt. Executive Secretary)
of the Academy.
V.P. Sharma, Former Additional Director General, ICMR, New
Delhi delivering a lecture at NASI, Allahabad; and a
prototype of Bypass Desert Cooler, developed by himself.
Several other lectures were also delivered on interesting
and popular scientific topics, a brief details is given
At NASI, Allahabad on April 6, 2011
Prof. USN Murty, Head, Biology Division, IICT, Hyderabad on
‘Vector and Community Control Measures’
At NASI, Allahabad on July 29, 2011
Mr. Michel Danino, Convener of International Forum for
India’s Heritage, Coimbatore on ‘The Lost Sarasvati, from
River to Goddess’
In Bal Bharti Public School, Allahabad on August 6, 2011
Prof. S.L. Srivastava on ‘Advancement in Science – Physical
Prof. U.C. Srivastava on ‘Advancement in Science –
Dr. Niraj Kumar on ‘Advancements in Science : Capacity
In NASI, Allahabad on August 8, 2011
Prof. (Mrs.) Krishna Misra on ‘Chemistry Today & Tomorrow’
Dr. (Mrs.) Archana Pandey on ‘Natural Products as Drugs’
At Adarsh Inter College, Kaushambi on August 24, 2011
Dr. V.C. Srivastava on ‘Human being and their role in
Dr. Mohd. Masood on ‘Habits to Maintain Good Health’
Dr. O.P. Gupta on ‘Physics Experiments & Demonstrations’
At Colonelganj Inter College, Allahabad on September 2, 2011
Dr. Abhay Pandey on ‘Nucleic Acid’
At MBS School Pratapgarh on September 15, 2011
Dr. Manvendra Tripahi on ‘Malaria’
At Saket Girls Degree College, Pratapgarh on September 15,
Prof. U.C. Srivastava on ‘Scientific Methods of Teaching’
At M.D. PG College, Pratapgarh on September 15, 2011
Dr. Sharda Sundaram on ‘Nanotechnology’
At Modern Science College, Pratapgarh on September 16, 2011
Prof. S.L. Srivastava on ‘Energy’
At Prabhat Academy, Pratapgarh on September 16, 2011
Shri Sanjay Srivastava on ‘Water Pollution and Testing’
At Bajrang Inter College, Bhadri, Pratapgarh on September
Prof. U.C. Srivastava on ‘Anti-oxidants’
At Tulsi Inter College, Babuganj, Pratapgarh on September
Prof. U.C. Srivastava on ‘Endocrine Regulation’
At S.P. Inter College, Kunda, Pratapgarh on September 21,
Dr. Chitranjan Kumar on ‘Biodiversity’
At T.P. Inter College, Kunda, Pratapgarh on September 21,
Dr. Chitranjan Kumar on ‘Forests & Environment’
At NASI, Allahabad on September 28, 2011
Prof. S.P. Vij, Punjab University, Chandigarh on ‘Orchids’
(x) The Academy in collaboration with the Department of
Physics, University of Allahabad and Indian Association of
Physics Teachers also jointly organized orientation lecture
in the month of June 2011.
The programme was coordinated by Prof. Indira Mehrotra,
Head, Department of Physics, University of Allahabad.
(xi) As a Part of the celebration of International Year of
the Academy in collaboration with the Vigyan Prasar, DST,
New Delhi and Vigyan Parishad, Allahabad, jointly organized
a training programme for the Chemistry Teachers on August 7,
2011 in the Academy at Allahabad. Er. Shri Anuj Sinha,
Director, Vigyan Prasar, inaugurated the programme and the
lectures/demonstrations were delivered/conducted by
Prof.(Mrs.) Krishna Misra, Shri Kapil Tripathi, Noida, Dr.
B.M. Sharma, Dehradun, Dr. Archana Pandey, Allahabad and
others. The vote-of-thanks was given by Prof. Sheo Gopal
Misra, GS, Vigyan Parishad.
The Academy is grateful to the following distinguished
Resource Persons who contributed in organizing these Science
Communication Programmes – Prof. V.P. Sharma (Past
Prof. Krishna Mishra (General Secretary-HQ, NASI), Prof. S.
L. Srivastava (Coordinator, Sci. Commun. Prog.), Prof.
Suresh Chandra, Prof. J. S. Singh, Prof. C.B.L. Srivastava,
Prof. G.K. Srivastava, Prof. R.S. Ambasht, Prof. U.C.
Srivastava, Prof. S.P. Vij, Prof. Alok Dhawan, Prof. Archna
Shukla, Prof. Abhaiman Singh, Prof. K.P. Misra, Prof. R.K.
Srivastava, Prof. C.K. Dwivedi, Prof. Anita Gopesh, Prof.
D.K. Chauhan, Dr. S. P. Misra, Prof. G.L. Tiwari, Prof.
Satya Deo, Dr. V.C. Srivastava, Dr. Mamta Srivastava, Prof.
A.K. Srivastava, Prof. I.K. Patro, Prof. Samir Bhattacharya,
Prof. Neeraj Misra, Dr. Ashwani Kumar, Dr. C.M. Nautiyal,
Dr. Ramesh Chandra, Dr. Suryakant Chaturvedi, Dr. Shivesh
Pratap Singh, Dr. Brajesh Pandey, Dr. Pradeep Srivastava,
Sri Samarendra Kumar, Dr. Ashok K. Srivastava, Dr. O.N.
Srivastava, Dr. Niraj Kumar, Dr. Pankaj Srivastava, Mr.
Manvendra Tripathi, Dr. S.P. Tiwari, Dr. Kartikeya Sharma,
Dr. Ashish Tandon, Dr. B.P. Agrawal, Dr. Abhay Pandey, Prof.
D.S. Bhakuni, Prof. P.C. Srivastava, Prof. S.S. Agrawal,
Prof. Subramanium C. Gopal, Dr. Awadhesh Mishra, Prof. K.K.
Pandey, Prof. B.N. Singh, Dr. Anand Akhila, Dr. Alok Tandon,
Dr. Sandeep, Dr. Amita Kannaujiya, Dr. Ashwini Kumar Sharma,
Dr. Mohd. Masood, Dr. K.P. Singh, Dr. Ravindra Dhar, Dr.
Sharda Sundaram, Dr. Pramod Kumar, Dr. Sonali Chaturvedi,
Dr. Rajeev Srivastava, Er Ashok Mansingh, Dr. U.B. Tewari,
Dr. V.Raghvendra, Dr. Peeyush Chandra, Dr. Debasis Kundu,
Dr. Arvind K. Lal, Dr. A.F. Rizvi, Sri Brijesh Dixit, Dr.
Chitranjan Kumar, Dr. A.K. Srivastava, Ms. Archana Pant and
Sri Sanjay Srivastava.
(F) National Seminar on ‘Challenges of the Universities
in the Knowledge Society’ on July 4, 2011 at Regional
Science City, Lucknow, in collaboration with IIIT, Allahabad
The Seminar was organized to deliberate and sensitize the
Universities of their additional responsibilities towards
the society. In today’s environment the Universities have to
undertake a self assessment to determine if they are aware
of the needs of the society and if they are at all acting as
linkers between the knowledge creators and end users of
knowledge. The following main aspects were discussed in
Building knowledge societies
Knowledge creation; and
Knowledge transfer to the Society through
academic and research collaborations.
The speakers included Prof. Nitya Anand, Formerly at CDRI,
Lucknow, Dr. M.D. Tiwari, Director, IIIT, Allahabad, Prof.
(Mrs.) Krishna Misra, GS, NASI, Prof. Satish K. Tripathi,
President, State University of Newyork at Buffalo, Prof.
Manoj K. Mishra, VC, Lucknow University, Prof. Bharat
Bhasker, IIM, Lucknow, Prof. Kripa Shanker, VC, GBTU,
Lucknow, Prof. C.L. Khetrapal, Director, CBMR, SGPGI,
Lucknow and Prof. G.N. Pandey, IIIT, Allahabad. The seminar
was attended by a large gathering of university students and
The discussion held during this seminar was fruitful in
formulating useful and meaningful recommendations.
(G) Seminar on ‘Vigyan Sanchar Me Hindi Ke Bhumika’
& Celebration of ‘Hindi Diwas/Pakhwada’
The Academy celebrated ‘Hindi Pakhwada’ by organizing
several contests and activities to enthuse the employees as
well as students/teachers to use Hindi as much as
possible in their official communications and dialect. A
Seminar on ‘Vigyan Sanchar Me Hindi Ke Bhumika’ was
held on September 27, 2011 in the premises of the Academy,
in which several lectures were delivered by the eminent
scientists and administrators as Prof. A.K. Bakshi, VC, R.T.
Open University, Allahabad, Prof. Sheo Gopal Misra, Prof.
U.C. Srivastava, Prof. Krishna Misra, Prof. S.P. Vij, Prof.
S.L. Srivastava, Shri Rajeev Verma and others.
(H) Workshops on ‘Scientific Paper Writing’ held at BHU,
Varanasi and NASI, Allahabad
(i) Workshop held at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
from June 10-11, 2011
Theme and Participation - A workshop on
“Writing Research Papers” was organized by the National
Academy of Sciences, India (Varanasi Chapter) from June
10-11, 2011 at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. A major
goal of the workshop was to train young research scholars
and faculty members for developing and improving technical
skills for effective writing of scientific research papers.
The theme of the workshop dealt with a highly sought after
need of the young researchers. There was an overwhelming
response and we received over 100 applications each from
outstation and local participants. Initially, the workshop
was planned for 60 students but in the final count, we
increased the number to 85 to accommodate as many as
logistically possible. Young researchers with at least 2
years of research experience were considered for selection.
Care was taken that participants were equitably distributed
in different streams of Basic, Agricultural, Biological and
Medical Sciences. Outside participants were from different
institutions of UP, MP, AP,WB, Rajasthan and Delhi. It was
decided to see, as far as possible, that not more than one
student under a supervisor was selected as participant to
ensure wide based transmission of the message/ theme of the
Technical Sessions - During the inaugural
function on 10th June, Prof.Suresh Chandra, Coordinator of
the Workshop, welcomed the guests and thanked NASI for
taking a lead in organizing such a workshop and for
sponsoring the first workshop at BHU. Prof J Ram, Head of
Physics Dept, and Prof RC Yadav, Dean of Faculty of Science,
welcomed the guests. Then Prof MK Thakur, Organizing
Secretary, provided the details of the workshop and
emphasized its importance. Prof BN Dhawan, Guest of Honor,
highlighted the need of organizing such a workshop. Prof VP
Sharma, Chief Guest, delivered the keynote address and
mentioned the objectives of NASI including its leading role
in promotion of science education and research in the
country. Prof BD Singh, Rector, BHU, gave the presidential
remarks and appreciated the organization of the workshop by
NASI. At the end, Dr RK Singh, Organizing Secretary,
presented vote of thanks.
In the first scientific session on “General Lectures”
chaired by Prof PK Seth, Prof Suresh Chandra presented an
overview on writing research papers and suggested basic
practical hints for beginners. Prof BD Singh discussed in
detail the issue of plagiarism in scientific papers and
highlighted the necessity to avoid this while preparing the
manuscripts for publication. Prof BN Dhawan emphatically
stated that the article should be presented in a
methodological way such that it should clearly represent the
concept and conclusion, and advance knowledge in the field.
While doing this, he highlighted the necessity to keep in
mind the ethical issues related to scientific
communications. Prof JS Singh explained elegantly how the
mismatch between objectives and methodology leads to
misinterpretation of results and writing of misleading
research papers. Prof. Krishna Misra shared her experiences
of writing and reviewing research papers. The post-lunch
session was devoted to subject specific interactions between
participants and expert members. For biological sciences,
experts included Prof. Shelley Bhattacharya, Prof. GK
Srivastava and Prof. MK Thakur; for physical sciences –
Prof. SL Srivastava, Prof. DS Pandey and Dr. RK Singh; and
for multidisciplinary sciences- Prof. VP Sharma, Prof.
Krishna Misra and Prof. PC Mishra. Participants raised
several queries and mentioned about their difficulties in
writing research papers. Expert members discussed the
related issues at length and answered the queries
satisfactorily. At the end, a panel discussion was held
involving Dr. BN Dhawan and Dr. PK Seth as chairpersons and
all fellows and members of NASI local chapter. Based on
discussion, several recommendations were made.
The second day session started with general lectures chaired
by Prof. PC Mishra and Prof. SL Srivastava. Initially, Prof.
VP Sharma discussed the structure of a scientific research
paper wherein he elaborated each section with examples.
Prof. SC Lakhotia suggested how to choose a suitable journal
for publication of research papers. He emphasized that the
preferred journal should be a peer-reviewed journal having a
wide circulation so that majority of scientists working in
the field may come to know the research findings. Prof.
Shelley Bhattacharya explained the basic elements of
research leading to good publications. Prof. Suresh Chandra
provided various suggestions for writing technical English
for scientific research papers. He recollected his
experiences of many years. In another lecture, Prof. Suresh
Chandra provided various tips for dealing with “Referees
Comments”. Prof. SB Deshpande elegantly elucidated with
examples how results can be effectively presented in
research papers. Dr. Amreesh Chandra stressed the importance
of literature survey using various means. The post-lunch
session was dedicated to subject specific interactions. For
biological sciences, the experts were Prof. BN Singh, Prof.
AK Tripathi and Prof. Kavita Shah; and for mathematical
sciences- Prof. RS Pathak and Prof. AK Srivastava. At the
end, participants frankly provided their feedback which was
included in the recommendation. During the valedictory
function, six participants who participated actively
throughout the workshop were presented prizes and all
participants were provided certificates.
Concluding Remarks/ Recommendations –
(A) From the participants’ feedback, queries and
discussions, following important points emerged-
(1) Participants were unanimous in appreciating the conduct
of the Workshop and said they were immensely benefitted.
They felt the need of such training in their career and
appreciated NASI for being alive to their needs.
(2) Participants wanted the duration of Workshop to be
longer. Suggestions ranged from 3-7 days.
(3) Time permitting; they wanted ‘hand-on’ practice as well
as one-to-one discussion with experts.
(4) Some felt that the scope of the future Workshop may be
extended to other areas of their research activities such as
Oral and Poster presentations, thesis writing, project
report preparation and presentation, etc.
(5) All felt that these activities be repeated at B.H.U. as
well as at different centres in the country.
(B) From the Panel Discussion, evaluation of Feedback,
discussion amongst expert members present at the Workshop,
the following recommendations emerged -
Workshop based on the present theme of “Writing of
Scientific Research Papers” may be organized by NASI local
chapters at regular intervals at different centres.
Future thematic 2-day Workshops on other topics such as
“Effective Oral and Poster Presentation” and/or “Dealing
with the problems of Thesis Writing” may also be initiated
by NASI and prominent institutions like B.H.U. etc. may be
requested to give the lead.
The participants; and the
resource persons during the workshop at BHU, Varanasi
NASI-council may consider recommending to the Universities/
UGC/ AICTE etc to include Research Paper/ Thesis/ Technical
Writing as a part of their pre-Ph.D. course requirement.
For the organizers and Varanasi Local Chapter of NASI, the
organization of this event was a satisfying experience.
(ii) Workshop held at NASI, Allahabad from October 22-24,
The second workshop on ‘Scientific Paper Writing’ was
organized from October 22 - 24, 2011 at NASI, Allahabad.
Prof V.P. Sharma, ICMR Chair Professor, CRDT, IIT Delhi;
Past President, NASI, and also the Chairman of these
workshops, inaugurated the Workshop on October 22, 2011 in
the jam-packed auditorium of the Academy. He expressed that
the Academy tries to reach the masses for addressing the
social problems, especially those which could be solved with
the scientific inputs and interference; it also publishes
the reputed journals to encourage the scientists and
researchers by giving them opportunities to express their
ideas/views, and publish their research work. But it has
been felt that several researchers could not express
correctly/appropriately the findings of their research while
submitting their articles for publication. Therefore, it was
decided by the Council of the Academy that the National
Academy of Sciences, India will organize a series of
workshops to inspire and facilitate the young researchers/
scientists to understand the art of Scientific Paper
Writing, so that they could properly present their research
Prof. Suresh Chandra, NASI-Senior Scientist & a renowned
physicist, while recalling the memories of the first
workshop held with grand success at BHU, Varanasi under his
Coordinatorship in the month of June, 2011 expressed that
there is a dire need of organizing such practical workshops
which could help the young researchers in properly
presenting their research findings.
Before these distinguished guests, Prof. Krishna Misra,
General Secretary (HQ), NASI; Co-coordinator, Indo-Russian
Centre for Biotechnology, IIIT, Allahabad welcomed the
guests and the participants (200), who have come from all
the corners of the nation. She also informed that the third
such workshop has been planned at Lucknow, for which Prof.
Wuethrich, Nobel Laureate has already given his kind consent
to be the Chief Guest.
Prof U.C. Srivastava, Senior Professor in the Department of
Zoology, University of Allahabad; Past President of Indian
Science Congress Association (Animal Science Division) &
Convener of the workshop gave a brief introduction about the
programme to be held in these three days. In the end of the
inaugural session, the vote-of-thanks was proposed by Prof.
Satya Deo, Senior Professor of HRI, Allahabad and member of
Advisory & Organizing Committee of this workshop. The
others present on this occasion were Prof. S.A.H. Abidi,
Former Member, ASRB, ICAR, New Delhi, Prof. Anita Gopesh,
Prof. Vinod Prakash, Dr. Niraj Kumar, Sri A.K. Srivastava,
Sri B.P. Singh, Dr. Santosh Shukla, Dr. Pavitra Tandon, Sri
R.P. Tripathi, Fellows, Members & Staff of the Academy.
In the Technical Session of the Workshop, Prof. V.P.
Sharma delivered an illustrative and informative lecture on
Understanding the process of the research paper publication;
followed by very interesting interactive session which was
presided over by Prof. Satya Deo.
The 2nd lecture of the Workshop was delivered by Prof. U.C.
Srivastava on Concept & hypothesis development for writing a
research paper, which was also followed by the interactive
session presided over by Prof. Krishna Misra.
After the lunch, two more lectures, followed by long
interactive sessions were delivered by Prof. Suresh Chandra
on Language intricacies in writing a research paper; and by
Prof. K. Satyanarayana, Addl. Director-General, ICMR, New
Delhi on Scientometrics & Bibliometrics.
On the second day the lectures were delivered on ‘Role of
Computer in Scientific Paper Writing’, ‘Interpretation of
Data’, ‘Statistical Analysis’ and ‘Ethical Consideration in
Scientific Paper Writing’ by Prof. (Mrs.) Krishna Misra,
Prof. J.S. Singh, Prof. Anoop Chaturvedi, Dept. of
Statistics, UoA and Prof. B.N. Dhawan, Former Director, CDRI,
Lucknow, respectively; each lecture was followed by long
hours of interactive sessions and discussions.
The last day was mainly left for Group Interactions and
Technical Discussions; and in the end before the
Valedictory Function Dr. R.C. Tripathi, IIIT, Allahabad
delivered the Concluding Lecture on ‘Application of Computer
and IT in Scientific Paper Writing’. In the Valedictory
Function the researchers again interacted with other
eminent scientists, as Prof. P.K. Seth, CEO, Biotech Park,
Lucknow, Prof. Satya Deo, Prof. S.A.H. Abidi, Former
Chairman, ASRB, ICAR, Prof. G.K. Srivastava, Former Head,
DoB, UoA, Prof. U.C. Srivastava, Prof. V.P. Sharma and Prof.
(Mrs.) Krishna Misra. The certificates of participation were
also given to the researchers. The technical sessions of the
workshop were very much appreciated by the researchers
(225), who participated in the workshop; and they found it
fruitful in shaping their research initiatives and future
After the completion of both the workshops, it was the
general verdict that ‘Such workshops be held regularly
to show the right path to the young researchers so that they
could make their work designed in accordance with their
proposed theme and re-produce it effectively in black &
A view of the speakers and
participants during the workshop, at NASI, Allahabad
(II) Activities related to
(A) A brief report on the research contributions of Prof.
J. P. Mittal, M.N. Saha Distinguished Professor, NASI during
the period under report (From September 21, 2010)
During the above tenure, Prof. Mittal was involved in the
following research themes:
of the fundamental processes involved in the Laser
induced Chemical rexns (Gas Phase Chemical Dynamics).
of the processes involved in the reactions of transient
reactive species such as ē aq, H and OH free radicals
route for solar Energy conversion and storage.
Photocatalysis utilizing the nanoparticles of TiO2,
the science behind the Antioxidants and Radioprotection.
one dozen lectures at different universities, scientific
Institutions & colleges, towards promotion of Research
in Chemistry. This activity was undertaken specially to
celebrate the “International Year of Chemistry – 2011”
IYC-2011. Purpose was to excite and motivate the young
minds of students to take up Chemistry as a subject of
study and research for their careers by sharing with
them the ‘Excitement in Chemistry”.
interaction with colleagues, peers from various
countries through Scientific visits, exchanges and
participating in various International & National
Chemistry is a Science of great creativity. The beauty that
distinguishes it from other subjects involves its ability to
create new molecules, the ability to understanding and to
manipulate molecular at single molecule level. Some of the
results obtained during the period under the Theme-I
understanding the fundamental processes involves in breaking
& making new bonds:
Using pulsed H-atom Lymnan-a
laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy along with a
photolytic calibration approach, absolute H-atom product
quantum yields of ØH.b13d = (0.32
±0.04) and ØH.b12d
= (0.36±0.04) were
measured under collision-free conditions for the 193 nm
gas-phase laser flash photolysis of buta-1,3 – and buta-1,2
diene at room temperature, which demonstrate that nascent
H-atom formation is of comparable importance for both parent
molecules. Comparison of the available energy fraction,
¦T-b13d = (0.22
± 0.03) and
¦T-b12d = (0.13
±0.01), released as
H + C4H5 product translations
indicates that for both buta- 1,3 and 1,2 diene, H-atom
formation is preceded by internal conversion to the
respective electronic ground state (S0) potential energy
surface. In addition, values of
= (4.4±0.2) × 10-17
cm2 for the previously unknown Lyman-a
(121.6 nm) radiation photoabsorption cross sections of
buta-1,3 and buta- 1,2 diene in the gas-phase were
Results are published:
Ultraviolet photochemistry of buta-1,3- and buta- 1,2 dienes:
Laser spectroscopic absolute hydrogen atom quantum yield and
translational energy distribution measurements. The Journal
of Chemical Physics, 133, 024308 (2010).
Progress under Theme 5.
It has recently become known that the Melanins protects
micro-organisms against high doses of ionizing radiation.
However, the Physics & chemistry of melanin interaction with
ionizing radiation is unknown. Work has been initiated in
some rationally designed melanins from 5-5-cysteinyl DOPA,
L-Cysteine/L-Dopa with diverse structures their radiation
protection ability is being studied. Sulphur-containing
melanins have higher predicted attenuation coefficients than
non sulphur containing melanins. A mechanism of this radio
protection by melanins is being studied utilizing the
technique of pulse radiolysis.
Progress under Theme 6:
Lectures were delivered at the following Institutions:
Mithibhai College, Vile
Parle, Andheri, Mumbai 17-19 Jan.2011
Chemistry Dept., Allahabad
University, 5-7 Feb. 2011
University of Mumbai,
Kalina, Mumbai Feb. 14-16, 2011
Sagar University on
National Science Day, Feb. 28, 2011
National Institute of
Teachers Training, Bhopal, Feb. 27, 2011
Indian Association for
Cultivation of Science, Kolkata – 14th March 2011
Progress under Theme 7.
Participated & delivered the keynote
Plenary Lecture at the National Institute of Laser
Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo, Egypt
Participated as the Discussion Leader and
the Chairperson at the Radiation & Radiation &
Photochemistry Conference at Frankfurt (Oder) & Shbice,
(B) (i) A brief report on the research contributions of
NASI Platinum Jubilee Chair Distinguished Professor -
Professor S. K. Joshi, NPL, New Delhi
Electron Transport in Nanosystems:
A better understanding of transport of electrons in
nanomaterials, where material dimensions become smaller than
the mean free path of the electron, is essential. Because of
incredible advances in miniaturization of transistors in a
computer chip we need to know how current flows in them. We
already have a 38nm chip in our computers, but we lack
understanding of current transport. The conductance behaves
in a very different manner from the macroscopic domain
(where Ohm’s law is valid).
Confining electrons to dimensions of its wavelength, we have
a discrete energy spectrum for the electrons. In a quantum
dot of a semiconductor, this discreteness of energy has to
be taken into account in calculating conductance of the dot.
We have studied the electron transport in a double quantum
dot system using the non-equilibrium Green’s function of
Keldysh [Ref: Sov. Phys JETP 20 (1965) 1018].
In a single walled metallic carbon nanotubes the conductance
could be very high. We tried to calculate the conductance of
a single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) structure with two
kinks less than 100nm apart. This short nano system between
the kinks acts as a quantum dot, and the remaining SWCNT on
both the sides of the dot would work as a source and drain
We have developed a formalism for calculating the
conductance of the SWCNT system where the electrons in the
dot, in the leads and tunneling of electrons between the CNT
dot and leads is considered. We have calculated the density
of states of the SWCNT dot. We are attempting to understand
the conductance behaviour of the system. Only preliminary
results are available.
We are also planning to investigate the effect of doping the
dot in the above model system with different dopants. We
also want to find out how the diameter of SWCNT influences
(ii) A brief report on the research contributions of NASI
Platinum Jubilee Chair Distinguished Professor - Prof. G.
Padmanaban, IISc, Bangalore
There are two main interests
1. Study of the heme-biosynthetic pathway of the malarial
parasite as a drug target.
2. Combination therapy of malaria using curcumin and
artemisinin derivative, and study of the mechanism of action
A brief detail of both these aspects of investigation is
given below –
The de novo heme-biosynthetic pathway in the malarial
parasite was discovered in this laboratory over 15 years ago
and has turned out to be a good drug target. The genome
sequence of Plasmodium falciparum was published in
2002 and this contained the putative genes of the pathway.
An unusual hybrid model was proposed for the biosynthesis of
heme involving the mitochondrion, apicoplast and cytosol of
the parasite, based on bioinformatics predictions. In this
laboratory each gene of the pathway (seven of them) has been
cloned, protein expressed and the properties of the enzymes
studied. Antibodies were raised to the recombinant protein
and localization of the enzymes in the parasite studied by
immunofluorescence microscopy. During the period of this
report the following enzymes have been studied:
porphobilinogen deaminase (PfPBGD), uroporphyrinogen
decarboxylase (PfUROD), coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (PfCPO),
protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PfPPO) and ferrochelatase (PfFC).
1. Nagaraj, V.A., Arumugam, R., Gopalakarishnan, B.,
Jyothsna, Y.S., Rangarajan, P.N., Padmanaban, G. (2008).
Unique properties of Plasmodium falciparum
porphobilinogen deaminase. J. BioI. Chem. 283, 437-444.
2. Nagaraj, V.A., Arumugam, R., Chandra, N.R., Prasad, D.,
Rangarajan, P.N., Padmanaban, G. (2009). Localization of
Plasmodium falciparum uroporphyrinogen II decarboxylase
of the heme-biosynthetic pathway in the apicoplast and
characterization of its catalytic properties. Int. J.
Parasitol. 39, 559-568.
3. Nagaraj, V.A., Prasad, D., Rangarajan, P.N., Padmanaban,
G. (2009) Mitochondrial localization of functional
ferrochelatase from Plasmodium falciparum. MoI.
Biochem. Parasitol. 168, l09-112.
4. Nagaraj,V., Prasad, D., Arumugam, R, Rangarajan, P.N.,
Padmanaban, G. (2010) Characterization of coproporphyrinigen
III oxidase in Plasmodium falciparum cytosol.
Parasitol. Int. 59, 121-127.
5. Nagaraj, V., Arumugam, R., Prasad, D., Rangarajan, P.N.,
Padmanaban, G. (2010) Protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase from
Plasmodium falciparum is anaerobic and is localized to
the mitochondrion. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
(C) Scientific/Research Contributions of NASI Senior
(I) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. Suresh Chandra, BHU,
Solid state ionic materials are fast emerging as important
materials because of their potential application in devices
like fuel cells, solid state batteries, sensors, actuators,
dye sensitized solar cell, supercapacitors, electrochromic
display devices etc. “Ionic liquid”, which is also known as
low melting point salt, is the most recent development in
the area because of some of their interesting properties
like high ionic conductivity, low vapour pressure, a large
electrochemical window, high thermal stability, high
chemical stability, and a wide liquidus range and capability
of dissolving various organic/inorganic materials. We have
concentrated on developing novel “Ionogels” and Ion
conducting polymers with enhanced conductivity using ionic
liquids. The following work has been done in 2010:
PEO: IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium
tosylate, EMIM-TY) polymer electrolyte films were
prepared by solvent free hot-pressing and characterized
by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR),
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray
Diffraction (XRD) and Complex Impedance Spectroscopy.
The FTIR/DSC/XRD studies confirm the complexation of the
ionic liquid cation (EMIM+) with the ether
oxygen, i.e. C–O–C group of PEO. The crystallinity of
PEO+IL(EMIM-TY) electrolyte membranes has been found to
decrease with ionic liquid EMIM-TY content in PEO up to
a threshold weight ratio of ~20 wt.% and then the
crystallinity tends to increase. The room temperature
ionic conductivity is found to depend both on the ionic
liquid, EMIM-TY content and degree of crystallinity. The
temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity of pure
ionic liquid EMIM-TY, and the same ionic liquid in PEO
matrix is also studied and discussed. The FTIR, XRD, DSC
and conductivity results suggest that the IL-cation (EMIM+)
complexes with the ether oxygen of PEO .
Polymer electrolytes, (PEO:LiClO4)+x
IL (1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate)
with varying concentration of IL; x= 0,5,10,15,20 wt %
have been prepared by solution cast technique and
characterized by X-Ray diffraction, differential
scanning calorimetery, FTIR, conductivity and dielectric
relaxation measurements in the frequency range of 100
Hz–5 MHz. It is shown that for (PEO:LiClO4)+x
IL (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 wt %), system: (a) the degree
of crystallinity changes with x and is lowest for x = 5
wt % and then shows a slight increase and then decreases
monotonically. (b) The ether oxygen of PEO complexes
both with salt cation Li+ and BMIM+
cation of IL. (c) the conductivity as well as the
relaxation frequency first decrease with x (at T < Tm)
and then increase. This cannot be explained fully on the
basis of variation of degree of crystallinity. For
explaining this, the concept of contact ion pair
formation has been invoked. This has been confirmed by
detailed deconvolution analysis of respective FTIR peaks
Polymer electrolyte films based on PEO
containing ionic salt (LiClO4) and/or ionic
liquid (1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate,
BMIMPF6) have also been studied. These
polymer electrolyte films have been characterized by
Impedance spectroscopy and Laser Raman spectroscopic
technique. The conductivities study of these films show
that the conductivity first decreases with increasing
amounts of ionic liquid and passes through a plateau and
finally increases. The behaviour of conductivity has
been explained on the basis of the presence of ion-ion
association in these polymer electrolytes which controls
the transport properties. It is also shown that both
ionic liquid and ionic salt cation complexes with the
polymer backbone .
Synthesis of Ionogels and studies on
ionic liquid confined in porous silica matrices prepared
by hydrolytic as well as non-hydrolytic route have been
done. Three ionic liquid have been studied viz, [BMIM],[EMIM][OcSO4]
and[EMIM][BF4]. The prepared ionogels have
been characterized using BET, DSC, TGA, FTIR, XRD. We
have studied the effect of confinement of an IL [BMIM][OcSO4]
(which has a large anion) in a nanoporous silica gel
matrix. Upon confinement of the IL, a large shift is
found in its vibrations related to the imidazolium ring,
while significant changes are also observed in the C-H
related vibrations of the aliphatic chain and the SO3
related vibrations. Apart from changes in vibrational
frequencies of the IL upon confinement, we have also
found significant changes in phase- transition
temperatures. Particularly, the change in melting point
(∆Tm) is very large as compared to that of
confined ILs with smaller anions. A new explanation
based on the liquid drop model given for melting of the
nanocluster is proposed where the size of the “confined
IL” enters implicitly .
Ionogels by non-hydrolytic sol—gel route
using Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as metallic
precursor and formic acid as catalyst were prepared.
Interestingly, such gels were found to have density less
than one. This is reported by us for the first time.
These ionogels have been characterized by BET, DSC, TGA
and FTIR. We found that on increasing the amount of
ionic liquid [EMIM][BF4] the density of
ionogels decreases and the pore parameters of ionogels
also get affected. DSC results of low density ionogels
show a change in phase transition temperatures upon
confinement where as thermal stability is reduced in the
confined geometry. The vibrational bands related to
alkyl chain C-H vibration and imidazolium ring C-H
vibration have been found to change on confinement .
 “Structural and transport studies on polymeric membranes
of PEO containing ionic liquid, EMIM-TY: Evidence of
complexation” S. K. Chaurasia, R. K. Singh, S. Chandra.
Solid State Ionics 2011,183, 32–39
 “Dielectric Relaxation and Conductivity Studies on
(PEO:LiClO4) Polymer Electrolyte with Added Ionic
Liquid [BMIM][PF6]: Evidence of Ion-Ion
Interaction” S. K. Chaurasia, R. K. Singh, S. Chandra.
Journal of Polymer Science: Part B: Polymer Physics.
2011, 49, 291–300
 “Ion-polymer and ion-ion interaction in PEO based
polymer electrolytes having complexing salt LiClO4
and/or ionic liquid, [BMIM][PF6]” S. K.
Chaurasia, R. K. Singh, S. Chandra. Journal of Raman
Spectroscopy 2011(In press)
 “Studies on Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids having a
Large Anion Confined in a Nanoporous Silica Gel Matrix” M.P.
Singh, R. K. Singh, S. Chandra. J. Phys. Chem. B 2011, 115,
 “Synthesis and Characterization of low density silica
ionogels using non-hydrolytic sol-gel method” A. K. Gupta,
M. P. Singh, R. K. Singh, S. Chandra. (Under Preparation)
 “Properties of Ionic Liquid confined in porous silica
matrix” M. P. Singh, R. K. Singh and S. Chandra. Chem.
Phys. Chem. 2010, 11, 2036-2043.
 “Raman spectroscopic studies on polymer electrolyte
polymer (poly-ethylene oxide) complexed with salt, LiClO4
and Ionic liquid, [BMIM][PF6]” S. K. Chaurasia, M
P. Singh, R. K. Singh and S. Chandra. J. Raman
Spectroscopy. (In press)
 “Dielectric relaxation and conductivity studies on PVA
based polymer electrolytes films containing different
amounts of ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO4]” A. L.
Saroj, R. K. Singh and S. Chandra.(In press)
(II) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Professor Partha (Sarathy)
Ghose, SN Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata.
Professor Ghose continues his long term collaboration with
Professor Dipankar Home, Bose Institute, and Professor C.S.
Unnikrishnan, TIFR in the area of the foundations of quantum
mechanics. Recently he has proposed an ideal experiment to
probe deeper into the nature of measurement by exploiting
what are called "null result" or "negative result"
measurements. The experimental group led by Professor Helmut
Rauch. Arominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, is
planning to test the idea using single neutron beams.
A new area of research in experimental cognitive science has
been started in collaboration with WINGARD, a research
organization pioneering studies in cognitive science and
plasticity in humans. A paper is in preparation.
He also continues his research in the area of philosophy of
science. Of late he has been concentrating on the nature of
reality, causality and human cognition with special
reference to the conversations between Rabindranath Tagore
and Albert Einstein and also Werner Heisenberg. He is
editing three books in this area to be published by
Visva-Bharati in collaboration with Anima Viva multilingue,
a publishing firm based in Andora, Europe.
School Level Science:
Professor Ghose conducted a number of workshops for school
teachers and students organized by JBNSTS and the Modern
Academy of Continuing Education, Kolkata.
1. "Measurement as Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking,
Non-Locality and Non-Boolean Holism”,. arXiv: 1008.2510
[quant-ph] 15 Aug. 2010.
2."Does Measurement Necessarily Destroy Coherence?" arXiv:
1103.6116vl [quant-ph] 31 March, 2011. to be published in
Advanced Science Letters
3. "Science and Literature", to be published as Proceedings
of the National Seminar on Society and Literature:
Interdisciplinary Transactions; NEHU, Shillong, 16-18 March
4. "Understanding Reality: Its Science and Aesthetics", to
be published in Meaning and Understanding: Contexts of
Human Sciences; Arts & Literature, eds Goutam Biswas &
B. Neog, Philosophy Department, Assam University, Silchar
5, "What is Reality: A Philosophical Perspective on Tagore's
and Einstein's Views On Reality and Causality", to be
published in the Journal of the Indian Council of
Philosophical Research. Chief Ed Mrinal Miri. Guest Ed.
1. "Science and Literature" at the National Seminar on
Society and Literature: Interdisciplinary Transactions. NEHU,
Shillong, 16-18 March. 2010; to be published in the
2. "Seeing in the Dark with Quantum Light", TIFR, Mumbai,
3. "Measurement as Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking.
Non-Locality and Non-Boolean Holism", International
Conference on Quantum Systems, Classical Measurements &
Consequences, SVYASA, Bangalore, June 25-30, 2010
4. "Measurement as Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking,
Non-Locality and Non-Boolean Holism». IISc, Bangalore, July
5. "The Phenomenon of Tagore" on the occasion of the 150th
Birth Anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore at Assam
University, Silchar, '1 August 2010
6. "Dialogue between Science and Philosophy" on
International Philosophy Day in Assam University, Silchar,
29 November 2010
7. "Radical Tagore", Rabindra Darshan, organized by Moving
Images & Kalakriti Art Gallery on the occasion of the 150th
Birth Anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore, Banjara Hotel,
Hyderabad, 13 November. 2010
8. "Cognitive Science", Special Assistance Programme,
Department of Philosophy and the Centre for Cognitive and
Neural Sciences. University of Hyderabad., 15-16 November,
9. "Measurement as Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking. Non-
Locality and Non-Boolean Holism", Physics Department,
University of Hyderabad, 17 November. 2010
10. "Evidence of Gyrosonics Induced Brain Plasticity in
Humans", International Conference on Science, Spirituality
and Education, Namgyal Institute of Tibetology, Gangtok,
Sikkim, 20-23 December 2010
11. "Tagore and Einstein Plumb the Truth", International
Conference on Character of Mind, Indian Institute of
Advanced Studies, Shimla, 20 March, 2011
(III) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. Amit Ghosh,
National Institute of Cholera & Enteric Diseases, Kolkata
Mechanism of resistance to multiple drugs particularly
questions and quinolones which are first line drugs for the
treatment of diarrhoea were investigated in the entire
pathogens V. fluviallis and Enterotoxigenic E.
coli (ETEC), which in recent years are being isolated
with increasing frequency from the diarrhoeal patients.
Analysis of 17 ETEC strains from an outbreak in Ahmadabad
and 12 V. fluviallis strains patients from a
cyclone-hit area were carried out. Detailed examination
revealed that QRDR mutations, Efflux system and integron-borne
drug resistance genes, all contributed to making these bugs
multi drug resistant.
1. Ghosh, A., and Ramamurthy, T. (2011). Integron-Mediated
Antimicrobial resistance in V. cholerae in
"Epidemiological and Molecular Aspects on Cholera". (Eds) T.
Ramamurthy and S.K. Bhattacharya pp. 291-310. Springer, New
2. Ghosh, A., and T. Ramamurthy. (2011). Antimicrobials &
cholera: are we stranded? Indian J. Med. Res. 133:225-31.
3. Pazhani, GP, Chakrabarty, S, Fuji Hara, K., Yamasaki, S.,
Ghosh, A., Nair G. B. and Ramamurthy, T. (2011), QRDR
Mutations, Efflux System and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes
in Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) isolated from on
outbreak of Diarrhoea in Ahmadabad, India. Indian J. Med.
Res. (In the Press)
(IV) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. R.K. Varma,
Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmadabad
The following investigations have been carried since the
start of the Fellowship on Jan 01, 2010:
Macro-scale matter wave generation in charged particle
dynamics in a magnetic field, a consequence of quantum
Matter wave interference effects on the macro-scale
predicted by the author in charged particle dynamics in a
magnetic field [R. K. Varma Phys. Rev. E 64, 036608 (2001)]
and observed subsequently [R. K. Varma et al, Phys. Rev. E
65,026503 (2002), R. K. Varma and S. B. Banerjee Phys.
Scripta 75,19 (2007)] have been shown here to be an
interesting consequence of the inelastic scattering induced
modulation of the de Broglie wave along the direction
parallel to the magnetic field. Treating the problem in the
framework of the inelastic scattering theory, it is shown
that these macro-scale matter waves are generated in the
'parallel' degree of freedom as a modulation of the plane
wave state of the particle along the field concomitantly
with the excitation of Landau levels in the perpendicular
degree of freedom in an inelastic scattering episode. We
highlight here the role of quantum entanglement leading to
the generation of this macro-scale quantum entity which has
been shown to exhibit observable consequences. This case
also exemplifies a situation exhibiting quantum entanglement
on the macro-scale.
The paper has been presented in European Physical Journal
and is under review.
Macro-scale observation of a curl-free vector potential,
a manifestation of macro-scale matter waves:
Experimental results are obtained reporting the detection of
a curl-free vector potential on the macro-scale as
contrasted with the detection on the micro-scale 'a la
Aharonov-Bohm. Such a detection is attributed to the
"quantum modulation" of the plane wave state of the guiding
centre motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field,
which is generated concomitantly with the excitation of its
Landau levels in a scattering episode, through the mechanism
of quantum entanglement between the parallel and
perpendicular degrees of freedom of the particle. Such a
"quantum modulation" is also a matter wave, but on the
macro-scale, and leads to the "sensing" of the curl-free
vector potential on the macro-scale. Thus while the
Aharonov-Bohm effect is attributed to the sensing of the
curl-free vector potential by the de Broglie wave, its
sensing on the macro-scale is attributed to the modulation
of the de Broglie wave.
Work is also in progress on exploring the relationship
between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics
A Hilbert space representation is being sought for what I
have described as a Hamilton Jacobi flow, describing the
dynamics of a 'family' represented by a solution of the
HamiltonJacobi equation. This leads to a covering formalism
which describes both classical and quantum mechanics as a
probability amplitude formalism.
(V) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. S.N. Raina,
Formerly Professor of Botany, New Delhi
The broad objectives are towards assessing the genomic
changes, if any, at Cellular and Molecular level, of the
newly synthesized autopolyploids vis-à-vis the corresponding
diploid cytotypes. As a prelude, polyploids were for a long
time considered to be evolutionary dead end. Recently,
however, it has been established that newly synthesized
(hybrid) allopolyploids with two or more different genomes
exhibit considerable genomic reorganization including rapid
and non random changes, sequence elimination and changes in
gene expression. The information with regard to such
changes, if any, in nonhybrid autopolyploids is totally
The chromosome complements of the diploid (2n=2x=24) and
corresponding synthetic autotetraploid (2n=4x=28) Phlox
drummondii karyotype as expected; the diploid P.
drummondii chromosomes resolved into twelve pairs of
homomorphic chromosomes. The autotetraploid P. drummondii
chromosomes resolved into 12 groups, each group comprised of
4 chromosomes. Comparative chromosome morphology between the
diploid and the autotetraploid chromosome complements did
not reveal any discernible changes in the morphology from
Molecular cytogenetic tools were utilized to find out
changes, if any, internal to the chromosomes of
autotetraploid P. drummondii vis-à-vis the diploid
cytotype. The double target FISH distinguished two and four
pairs of chromosomes by revealing two and four sites of both
5S and 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA gene loci in the diploid and
tetraploid P. drummondii, respectively. No difference
was observed in the relative position or the intensity of
the signals on the chromosomes between the diploid and the
autotetraploids in both ribosomal RNA gene families. When
diploid chromosomes were probed with the diploid labelled
total DNA without block and tetraploid chromosomes probed
with the tetraploid total DNA without block, all chromosomes
painted uniformly. When diploid chromosomes were probed with
tetraploid labelled DNA and tetraploid chromosome
preparations were probed with diploid labelled DNA without
using any block, then also all the chromosomes be it diploid
or tetraploid chromosome complements, painted uniformly. The
diploid chromosomes blocked with total DNA of the tetraploid
and probed with diploid labelled DNA and vice versa did not
produce different results. The tetraploid chromosome
preparations blocked with the diploid total DNA and probed
with tetraploid labeled DNA and vice versa produced the same
results, that is, no discrimination in chromosome painting
either within the chromosomes or between the chromosomes. At
the face of it’s, one can say that consequent upon the
polyploidization of the diploid cytotype, no discernible
changes could be seen internal to the chromosomes.
Twenty three out of 100 RAPD primers produced good
amplification products in the DNA extracted from the diploid
and autotetraploid (C0, C1, C2,
C3) plants. Only seven showed polymorphism
between the diploid and autotetraploid plants. A total 144
amplification products were produced by 23 primers. Novel
bands discernible in the tetraploids were randomly
distributed. The average polymorphism of novel bands found
in C0, C1, C2 and C3
were 2.8, 1.6, 2.1 and 3.2%, respectively. Highest variation
was found in C3 followed by C0, C2
and C1 tetraploids. Further work is in progress.
(VI) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. S.P. Vij, Panjab
Mycorrhization of In Vitro Propagated Orchids: A Strategy
to Improve their Survival Frequency during Lab to Land
Orchid collection trips were undertaken in different parts
of Panjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, and Himachal. The places
frequently visited included Morni Hills, Nada Sahib (Haryana),
Kansal, Sukhna Lake, Mullanpur (Chandigarh), Solan, Kasauli,
Shimla, Kufri, Mashobhra (Himachal Pradesh), Nangal, Una (Panjab)
and adjacent areas. Live plants in several species were
collected along with their soil substratum and grown in
Orchid house, Panjab University Chandigarh. Studies were
accomplished in Goodyera repens. Some of the findings
are briefly described as follows:
Goodyera repens (Linn.) Schltr
Ground growing and highly variable species of ornamentally
significant and rhizomatous orchids. Rhizome creeping; stem
erect, hairy (hairs glabrous and glandular); leaves
elliptic, sub acute, dark green mottled with whitish green;
spikes narrowly cylindrical, densely many flowers; flowers
whitish flushed with brownish pink. This cool growing
species is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. In
India, it is distributed throughout the Himalayan range
(1800-2,600m) where it grows in moist, humus rich and shady
situations along the forest borders especially in the
crevices of stony walls and road embankments. Grasses, ferns
and some other herbaceous elements constitute its associated
vegetation. Fairly common in Shimla hills (1800-2600m).
Flowers: June-August; Fruit: August-September
Besides its ornamental values as an indoor plant; the
species is medicinally significant; a paste prepared from
its crushed leaves is used as a blood purifier and to cure
Live collections of Goodyera repens representing
different stages of growth and development were made from (Chadabara)
Himachal Pradesh, and maintained in the Orchid house, Panjab
University Chandigarh to ensure ready availability of
experimental material. The collections were screened for
fungal endophytes, for which purpose different plant parts
were excised, fixed for 4-5 days in FAA, and stored in 70%
alcohol until use. Hand sections were cut at 12-15 11m and
stained with cotton blue for locating the fungus therein.
Fresh roots were used to isolate fugal endophytes: the soil
particles sticking to the roots were carefully removed and
the roots rinsed with running tap water prior to sequential
surface sterilization using 70% alcohol (5 sec) and 0.07%
mercuric chloride (3-4 min). The sterilized roots were
washed thoroughly with distilled water, segmented into 8-10
mm long pieces and inoculated on H1 oat medium
under aseptic conditions. The cultures were subsequently
incubated in dark at 25°C until hyphae emerged out from the
cut ends and grew onto the medium. The hyphae were
repeatedly sub cultured to obtain pure cultures. The
isolated fungus was identified using relevant literature. In
what follows, some of the findings are briefly described.
Anatomical studies revealed that the roots were invariably
infected with, an endophytic and intracellular fungus,
whereas, the tubers and aerial plant parts were always free
of fungal infection. The extent of infection however varied
along the root length; the meristematic tip region lacked
infection whereas the root hair zone supported maximum
infection. Incidentally, the younger roots were more
profusely infected than the mature ones.
The root tissues in a cross section comprised an outermost
layer of epiblema cells which was followed by 8-10 layered
cortex, an endoderm is and a vascular zone. The fungal
infection extended all through the cortex except in the
innermost 2-3 layers adjoining the endodermis; the vascular
zone was infection free. The fungus gained entry into the
roots mainly through the epiblema hairs. Once in the
epiblema cells, it penetrated the cortical tissue through
thin walled passage cells. The outer 2-3 cortical layers
represented the host cell zone, where the fungus
proliferated rapidly and formed a network of highly coiled
hyphae - the pelotons within which the host cell nucleus was
often enmeshed. The hyphae thinned out at the point of
penetration in the cell wall and attained their normal
diameter thereafter. The hyphae branched actively in the mid
cortical zone and spread readily from cell to cell forming
different sized pelotons; the size of pelotons was directly
related to extent of fungal proliferation. The infected
cells exhibited hypertrophy (a symptom associated with
parasitism). Even their nuclei enlarged and showed signs of
chromatopycnosis. Maximum growth of the fungus was seen in
4-5 layers of mid-cortical zone which ultimately function as
the seat of tolypophagous fungus digestion.
During digestion the fungal hyphae disintegrated, coalesced
and formed densely staining fungal knots which gradually
lost in size and stainability. Digestive remains of the
pelotons were seen as fungal clumps. These were ultimately
represented by only the fungal cell wall material. The host
cell nuclei, which were earlier enmeshed within the hyphal
network, emerged out of the fungal clumps and assumed normal
appearance. At times the fungal clumps in adjacent cells
were interconnected by hyphal threads. The fungal clumps
were relatively smaller in the outer cortex than those in
the inner cortical cells.
The fungal endophyte was isolated from the infected root
segments on Hloat medium (Clements et al., 1986,
modified by Rasmussen et al., 1990) and its pure
culture raised on PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) medium. In the
isolation medium, the hyphae emerged out from the cut ends
of inoculated segments within a week, and multiplied
profusely to form a thin fungal mat on the medium and along
the walls of culture vessels.
In general, the mycelial growth followed a pattern of
concentric rings. The extent of growth and branching was,
however markedly influenced by the quality and quantity of
nutrients in the culture medium.
On PDA medium the fungal growth was most pronounced. The
least growth was observed on WA (Water Agar) medium. The
hyphae were septate and branched along acute or right angle
near the septa. The moniliform hyphae were compactly
intertwined to form sclerotia that appeared as crystalline
dots on mycelial mat and along the surface of culture vessel
in 1 month old cultures. At maturity, the moniliform hyphae
were thick walled and assumed chlamydosporous identity. No
sexual reproductive organs were observed. The actively
growing mycelia appeared non granular, branched, and with
occasional clamp connections indicating basidiomycetes
affinities. Based on these characters, the fungus isolated
was identified as Rhizoctonia goodyera-repens
Constantin and Dufour.
Goodyera seed comprise a globular mass of embryonal cells
substended by a suspensor and enclosed within a reticulately
thickened testa. They were inoculated on Mitra et al.
(1976, M) medium with and without growth additives [Peptone,
1g/l; auxins (IAA, IBA, NAA, 1mg/l; cytokinin (KN, 1mg/I)].
The time taken for onset of germination and various
morphogenetic stages leading to seedling development varied
with the nutritional combination used. In the basal medium,
75% seed germinated in 49 days. Hairy protocorms developed
in 67 days. First leaf was differentiated in 110 day old
cultures and root 30 days later. Seedlings complete with
leaves, roots and tubers were obtained in 160 days.
Additional use of Peptone in the medium proved beneficial in
accelerating frequency and onset of germination.
Incorporation of IAA/KN in the above combination proved
ineffective whereas IBA in the medium impaired the
germination frequency. NAA alone or with KN, proved
inhibitory to germination. Experiments leading to
mycorrhization of the neoformations are underway.
Annual action plan for 2010-2011
a. To undertake periodic field trips to Himachal Pradesh for
collection of economically important and endangered orchids
especially Cymbidium macrorhizon and Malaxis
b. To isolate and identify their fungal endophytes
c. To test the asymbiotic and symbiotic germination
potential of Goodyera repens, Cymbidium macrorhizon
and Malaxis muscifera seeds.
(VII) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. J.S. Singh, BHU,
Pattern of species diversity along forest-grassland
continuum in relation to disturbance
Inter-relationships and intraseasonal variation in leaf
traits of forest herbs
A range of leaf traits was measured for 17 herbaceous
species fortnightly from July to September for two years
in a dry tropical forest. These species were classified into
four life forms: annual grasses, perennial grasses, annual
forbs and perennial forbs. The objectives of this study were
(i) to assess the effect of life-form on leaf traits in the
herbaceous flora of tropical dry deciduous forest of
Vindhyan highlands, (ii) to measure the growing season
variation in the traits, and (iii) to investigate the
relationships between the leaf traits. The seasonal pattern
in leaf traits, in general, was an early season peak in SLA,
leaf nitrogen and leaf phosphorus, and a midseason peak in Gs
and Aarea. Annual forbs generally exhibited
highest leaf trait values and the perennial grasses the
lowest. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated
significant positive relationship of SLA with all other leaf
traits, between leaf N and leaf P and among chlorophyll, Gs
and Aarea. The decline in leaf nitrogen and leaf
phosphorus during the growing season occurred due to the
retranslocation of these elements from leaves into the
storage or reproductive organs. The peaks in Gs
and Aarea were associated with increase in soil
Landscape ecology and biodiversity
A review was completed to present the current experiences
and, analyses in conjunction with international scenario and
identifies future challenges of Indian landscape level
biodiversity studies. Landscape ecology, inter alia,
addresses the question as to how altered landscape patterns
affect the distribution, persistence, and abundance of a
species. Landscape ecology plays an important role in
integrating the different scales of biodiversity from
habitat patch to biome level. Satellite remote sensing
technology with multi-sensor capabilities offer multi-scale
information on landscape composition and configuration.
Advances in geospatial analytical tools and spatial
statistics have improved the capability to quantify spatial
heterogeneity. Considering the vast extent, heterogeneity,
and ecological and economic importance of forest landscapes,
significant efforts have been made in India during the past
decade to strengthen landscape level biodiversity
characterization. The generic frame work of studies
comprises preparation of national databases providing
information on composition and configuration of different
landscapes using multi-scale remote sensing techniques,
understanding the landscape patterns using geospatial models
to elicit disturbance and diversity patterns and application
of this information for bioprospecting and conservation
purposes. Studies on hierarchical linkage of multi-scale
information to study the processes of change, landscape
function, dynamics of habitat fragmentation, invasion,
development of network of conservation areas based on the
understanding of multi-species responses to landscape
mosaics, macro-ecological studies to understand environment
and species richness, habitat and species transitions and
losses, landscape level solutions to adaptation and
mitigation strategies to climate change are a few of the
Invasive flora of UP
A comprehensive inventory of the invasive alien flora of
India’s fifth largest and most populous state, Uttar
Pradesh, revealed 152 species from 109 genera and 44
families. Dicots represented 137 species and monocots 15
species. About 73% of these alien species were introduced
from tropical America including South America, followed by
tropical Africa (10.5%). Maximum number of species (30) were
from the family Asteraceae, followed by Fabaceae (12
species), and then Amaranthaceae, Solanaceae and
Convolvulaceae with eight species each. Herbs accounted for
128 species, shrubs 12 species, climbers 8 species, whereas
trees and lianas 3 and 1 species respectively. People have
found a large number of these alien species useful. The
pathways or mechanisms that underlie the impacts of exotic
plant invasions on community structure and ecosystem
processes and why exotic plants impact only certain systems,
and why only some invaders have large impacts are poorly
Floristic diversity of Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere
The floristic diversity of the AABR has been analyzed for
the first time. The collections from the AABR area and their
subsequent critical study have resulted in the documentation
of 1011 species, distributed under 571 genera and 134
families of flowering plants. Out of these, 754 species
under 432 genera and 104 families belong to dicots and the
remaining 256 species under 139 genera and 30 families to
monocots. Further analysis of data indicated that the family
Poaceae is the most diverse and is represented by 112
species, followed by Fabaceae with 76 spp., Asteraceae with
72 spp., Cyperaceae with 40 spp., Acanthaceae with 36 spp.
etc., At generic level, the genus Cyperus comprised
maximum number of 15 species, followed by Ficus with
12 spp., Crotalaria with 12 spp., Ipomoea with
11 spp., Cassia with 11 spp., etc. A large number of
species growing in this area are of medicinal and economic
value and used by local inhabitants.
Leaf attributes and tree growth
Eight leaf attributes, specific leaf area (SLA); leaf carbon
concentration (LCC); leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC); leaf
phosphorus concentration (LPC); chlorophyll concentration (Chl),
mass based stomatal conductance (Gsmass); mass
based photosynthetic rate (Amass); intrinsic
water use efficiency (WUEi) and relative growth rate (RGR),
of six dominant tree species of a dry tropical forest on
four sites were analysed for species, site and season
effects over a two-year period. Step-wise multiple
regression was performed for predicting RGR from mean values
of SMC and leaf attributes. Path analysis was used to
determine which leaf attributes influence RGR directly and
which indirectly. Species differed significantly in terms of
all leaf attributes and RGR. The response of species varied
across sites and seasons. The attributes were positively
inter-related except for WUEi which was negatively related
with all other attributes. The positive correlation was
strongest between Gsmass and Amass and
the negative correlation was strongest between Gsmass
and WUEi. Differences in RGR due to sites were not
significant when soil moisture was controlled but the
differences due to season remained significant. The
attributes showed plasticity across moisture gradient, which
differed among the attributes and species. Gsmass
was the most plastic attribute. Among the six species,
Terminalia tomentosa exhibited the greatest plasticity
in six functional attributes. In the step-wise multiple
regression, Amass, SLA and Chl among leaf
attributes and SMC among environmental factors were found to
influence the RGR of tree species. Path analysis indicated
the importance of SLA, LNC, Chl and Amass in
In conclusion, Amass, SMC, SLA and Chl in
combination can be used to predict RGR but could explain
only about three-fourth of the variability in RGR,
indicating that other traits/factors, not studied by us, are
also important in modulating the growth of tropical trees.
RGR of the tree species in the dry tropical environment is
determined by soil moisture, whereas the response of mature
trees of different species is modulated by alterations in
key functional attributes such as SLA, LNC and Chl.
R. K. Chaturvedi, A. S. Raghubanshi & J. S. Singh. 2011.
Leaf attributes and tree growth in a tropical dry forest.
Journal of Vegetation Science Doi:
Prajjwal Dubey, Gyan P. Sharma, A. S. Raghubanshi and J. S.
Singh 2011. Leaf traits and herbivory as indicators of
ecosystem function. Current Science 100 (3): 313-320
Prajjwal Dubey, A. S. Raghubanshi and J. S. Singh 2011
Intra-seasonal variation and relationship among leaf traits
of different forest herbs in a dry tropical environment.
Current Science 100 (1) 69-76.
Rashid I., A. A. Khuroo, G. P. Sharma, Z. A. Reshi and J. S.
Singh 2010. Is it enough to have ‘green’ Common Wealth Games
2010? Current Science 99 (9): 1181-82
Singh, J. S., P. S. Roy, M. S. R. Murthy and C. S. Jha.
2010. Application of Landscape Ecology and Remote Sensing
for assessment, monitoring and conservation of biodiversity.
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 38 (3):
Chaturvedi, R. K., A. S. Raghubanshi and J. S. Singh. 2010.
Non-destructive estimation of tree biomass by using wood
specific gravity in the estimator. National Academy Science
Letters 33 (5&6): 133-138
Singh, K. P., Achuta Nand Shukla and J. S. Singh. 2010.
State-level inventory of invasive alien plants, their source
regions and use potential. Current Science 99 (1): 107-114
(VIII) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Dr. D. J. Bagyaraj,
University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore.
Development of Microbial Technology for Sustainable
Cultivation of chilli
Preamble: Currently emphasis is on sustainable
agriculture, which uses less of chemical inputs like
fertilizers/pesticides having adverse effects on soil and
environment. Use of organic inputs including microbial
inoculants plays an important role in sustainable
agriculture. chilli is one of the major commercial crops of
the world. Different varieties are grown for vegetables,
spices, condiments, sauces, pickles etc. Capsaicin extracted
from chilli is used in cosmetics and medicine. India is the
world’s largest producer, consumer and exporter of chilli.
Fertilizer input and diseases are the major constraints in
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonizing the roots of
most crop plants help plant growth through uptake of
diffusion limited nutrients, biological control, hormone
production and drought resistance. They also have
synergistic interaction with plant growth promoting
rhizomicroorganisms (PGPRs). In the 1st year of
the present project, it is proposed to screen different AM
fungi for symbiotic response in order to select the
efficient AM fungus that can be used for inoculating chilli.
Work done: A green house experiment was conducted to
screen and select the best AM fungus for inoculating chilli.
The soil used in the study was fine, kaolinitic,
isohyperthermic, kanhaplustalfs. The soil had a pH of 5 and
it contained 2.7 ppm available phosphorus. Polybags of the
size 20 x 15cm. holding 1.5 kg soil was filled with the
substrate. The substrate used was soil: sand: vermicompost
mixture in 1:1:0.25 v/v/v ratio. The AM fungi multiplied on
soilrite: perlite: vermiculite (1:1:1) v/v/v as the
substrate and Rhodes grass as the host were used as the
inoculum. Ten grams of different AM fungi were added to the
planting hole before sowing the seeds as per the treatment.
The AM fungi used were Acaulospora laevis,
Gigaspora margarita, Glomus bagyarajii, G.
etunicatum, G. fasciculatum, G. intraradices,
G. leptotichum, G. macrocarpum, G.
monosporum, G. mosseae, and Scutellospora
calospora. Each treatment was replicated ten times.
Tejashwini variety of chilli commonly grown in this area
was used in the study. The plants are maintained in a green
house and watered when necessary. The plants are around 50
days old at present. This experiment is underway.
The plant parameters to be studied are plant height, stem
girth, shoot and root dry weights and P content of the
plant. AM root colonization and spore numbers in the root
zone soil will also be determined at harvest. Based on the
results the best AM fungus for inoculating chilli will be
determined for further experiments.
Work to be done: The interaction between the selected
AM fungus and PGPRs will be studied in order to select the
best microbial consortia for inoculating chilli. These two
initial experiments will be done through pot culture trials.
With the selected microbial consortia micro plot experiments
and finally field evaluation will be done with different
levels of fertilizers. Tracking down of introduced
inoculants will be done using appropriate primers. The low
input sustainable agriculture technology thus developed
would not only reduce the cost of cultivation but also
(IX) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. B.N. Mandal, Indian
Statistical Institute, Kolkata
The present research project aims at study of some water
wave propagation problems assuming linear theory and
associated mathematical techniques such as integral
During the two years of tenure, further advanced
mathematical work on water wave scattering problems and also
work on some integral equations are being continued. Also
the manuscript of an advanced level research monograph
entitled "Applied Singular Integral Equations" has been
prepared recently. The monograph will be published soon
(March 2011). This book is devoted to varieties of linear
singular integral equations with special emphasis on their
method of solution and applications to physical problems
arising mostly in the area of water waves.
1. Surface wave propagation over small undulations at the
bottom of an ocean with surface discontinuity, MandaI, B. N.
and De, Soumen, Geophys. & Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 103
(2009) 19- 30.
2. Wave scattering by a circular cylinder half-immersed in
water with an ice-cover, Das, Dilip and MandaI, B. N.,
Int. J. Engng. Sci. 47 (2009) 463 - 474.
3. Scattering of surface water waves by a floating elastic
plate in two dimensions, Gayen, Rupanwita and MandaI, B. N.,
SIAM J. Appl. Math. 69 (2009) 1520 -1541.
4. Water wave scattering by two submerged plane vertical
barriers - Abel integral equations approach, De, S., MandaI,
B. N. and Chakrabarti, J. Engng. Math. 65 (2009) 75 -
5. Wave scattering by undulating bed topography in a
two-layer ocean, Maiti, Paramita, MandaI, B. N. and Basu,
U., J. Marine Sci. Applic. 8 (2009) 183 - 195.
6. Wave radiation by a sphere submerged in a two-layer ocean
with an ice-cover, Das, Dilip and MandaI, B. N., Appl. Ocean
Res. 32 (2010) 358 - 366.
7. Use of Abel integral equations in water wave scattering
by two surface-piercing barriers, De, S., MandaI, B. N. and
Chakrabarti, A., Wave Motion 47 (2010) 279-288.
8. Numerical solution of an integral equation arising in the
problem of cruciform crack, Bhattacharya, Subhra and MandaI,
B. N., Int. J. Appl. Math. & Mech 6 (2010) 70 -77.
9. Numerical solution of some classes of logarithmically
singular integral equations; Bhattacharya, Subhra and MandaI,
B. N., J. Adv. Res. in Appl. Math. 2 (2010) 30 -38.
10. Wave scattering by a thin vertical barrier submerged
beneath an ice-cover. Maiti,
Paramita and Mandal, B. N., Appl. Ocean Res. 32
(2010) 367 -373.
11. Construction of wave-free potentials in the linearised
theory of water waves, Das,
Dilip and Mandal, B. N., J. Marine Sci. Applic. 9
12. Numerical solution of a system of generalized Abel
integral equations using Bernstein polynomials. Pandey, R.
K. and Mandal, B. N., J. Adv. Res. Sci. Comput. 2
(2010) 44 - 53.
13. Construction of wave-free potentials in the linearized
theory of water waves in uniform finite depth. Mandal, B. N.
and Das, Dilip, Rev. Bu. Cal. Math. Soc. 18 (2010)
14. Transmission of water waves through apertures in a pair
of thin vertical barriers. De, S. and Mandal, B. N., 26th
International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating
Bodies(26IWWWFB), Athens, 17-20 April, 2011 (accepted).
15. The Cauchy Poisson problem for a sloping beach.
Chakraborty, Rumpa and Mandal, B. N., communicated.
16. Numerical solution of some classes of integral equations
by Sine method. Chakraborty, Rumpa and Mandal, B. N.,
The papers  to , , , -  involve water
problems while the papers , ,  and  involve
Applied Singular Integral Equations. Mandal, B. N. and
Chakrabarti. A. Science Publishers / CRC Press, USA (in
On the research papers
Water wave scattering by small bottom undulations in the
presence of discontinuity in the surface boundary condition
is investigated in . The problem of scattering of water
waves obliquely incident on a fixed long circular cylinder
half-immersed in deep water with an ice-cover is
investigated in . A new method is developed in ' to,
study the problem of water wave scattering by a thin elastic
plate of arbitrary, width floating in deep water assuming
The classical problem of surface water wave scattering by
two identical thin vertical barriers submerged in deep water
and extending infinitely downwards from the same depth below
the mean free surface, is reinvestigated in  by an
approach, leading to the problem of solving a system of Abel
integral equations. The problem of wave scattering by
undulating bed topography in a two-layer ocean is
investigated in  on the basis of linear theory. Wave
radiation (both heave and sway) by a sphere submerged in a
two-layer ocean consisting of a layer of fresh water of
finite depth with an ice-cover and an infinite layer of salt
water is investigated in . In  the complementary
problem of water wave scattering considered in  by two
partially immersed plane vertical barriers submerged in deep
water up to the same depth is investigated. Water wave
transmission through apertures in pair of thin vertical
barriers is considered in  by the same technique. The
problem of wave scattering by a thin vertical barrier
submerged beneath an ice cover is investigated in  by
using hypersingular integral equation formulation. In 
and , a systematic method has been used to construct
wave-free potentials in the linearised theory of water waves
for deep water and uniform finite depth water respectively.
In , the two-dimensional Cauchy Poisson problem for a
beach sloping at an arbitrary angle is investigated.  is
concerned with obtaining approximate numerical solution of
an integral equation arising in the problem of cruciform
crack in the theory of elasticity. In , two approximate
numerical methods, one based on Bernstein polynomials and
another based of Haar wavelets, are derived for solving some
classes of Fredholm and Volterra integral equations with
logarithmic singularities in their kernels. In , a
system of generalized Abel integral equations have been
solved numerically by using Bernstein polynomials. The paper
 presents a Sinc-Collocation method to obtain
approximate numerical solution of a singular integro-differential
equation with Cauchy type kernel and a simple hypersingular
On the book
The book is devoted to varieties of linear integral
equations with special emphasis on
their methods of solution and applications in physical
problems arising mostly in continuum mechanics, and helps in
introducing the subject of singular integral equations and
their applications to researchers as well as graduate
students of this fascinating and growing branch of applied
(X) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Dr. Vasant R. Choudhary,
National Chemical Laboratory, Pune.
Synthesis of fine chemicals using environmentally
friendly novel solid catalysts
Extensive studies have been carried out on the synthesis of
fine chemicals, using environmentally benign highly
active/selective solid catalysts, which can be easily
separated from the reaction mixture and also can be reused
several times in the reaction.
Solvent-free selective oxidation of
benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by tert-butyl
hydroperoxide over Au/U3O8 catalyst: Influence of
catalyst preparation method, Au loading, catalyst
calcination temperature and reaction conditions; Vasant
R. Choudhary and Deepa K. Dumbre, Appl. Catal. A General
375 (2010) 252-257.
Oxidative coupling of methane over
La-promoted CaO catalysts: Influence of precursors and
catalyst preparation method; V. H. Rane, S. T Choudhary
and V. R. Choudhary, Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry 19
A greener Ullmann coupling of aryl
halides for preparing bi-aryls using reusable Pd/ZrO2
catalyst; Deepa K. Dumbre, Radhika D. Wakharkar and
Vasant R. Choudhary, Synth. Commun., 41 (2010) 164-169.
One-pot three-component Kabachnik-Fields
Synthesis of α-aminophosphonates using H-beta zeolite
catalyst; V. H. Tillu, D. K. Dumbre, R. D. Wakharkar and
V. R. Choudhary, Tett. Lett., 52 (2011) 863-866.
(XI) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Dr. Uppeandra Dhar, SBI
Biodiversity of Himalayan Alpines - developing baseline
to assess climate change impacts
Develop and analyze baseline data on
various aspects of Himalayan biodiversity research,
Identify genetic diversity pattern of
selected accessions of Hedychium spicatum using
Standardize DNA isolation protocols of
selected high altitude medicinal plant species.
The work has been done as per aforesaid objectives; and the
results have been communicated.
Papers Communicated (2010):
i) Bhatt ID, Dauthal P, Rawat S, Gaira KS, Jugran A, Rawal
RS, U. Dhar 2010. Effect of growing sources, plant parts and
drying condition on total phenols and Antioxidant properties
of Valeriana wallichii DC. Phytochemistry (under
ii) Arun Jugran, Bhatt ID, Sandeep Rawat, Lalit Giri,
Ranbeer S. Rawal, Uppeandra Dhar 2010. Genetic diversity and
differentiation in Hedychium spicatum Buch. Ham. ex. D. Don
- a high value medicinal plant of Indian Himalaya.
Biochemical Genetics (under review)
iii) Sharat Kumar Palita, Aditya V. Ponkshe and Uppeandra
Dhar. 2010. Habitat enrichment and its impact on avian
diversity: A study at GBPIHED, Kosi, Katarmal, Uttarakhand.
Objectives set for the year 2011:
To further consolidate on baseline
focusing on alpine/subalpine Himalayan biodiversity and
sift utilizable information for application in policy
research including climate change related issues.
To identify alpine biodiversity
components that warrant immediate conservation
To standardize the isolation and
characterization of hedychenone from the rhizomes of
(XII) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. K.V.B.R. Tilak,
Osmania University, Hyderabad
Interaction of rhizosphere microorganisms with Rhizobium
on legumes grown under semi-arid soils
Associative effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna) on symbiosis of
mungbean (Vigna radiata (L)Wilczek)
The vast majority of plant associated microorganisms inhabit
the rhizosphere, defined as the zone around roots in which
the growth of microorganisms is stimulated by the release of
nutrients. Within the rhizosphere, there is a continuous
interaction between plant roots and rhizosphere organisms.
These interactions can have an important influence on plant
Although rhizosphere appears to be too complex to allow its
manipulations, specific bacteria can be applied to seeds or
roots, which cause an alteration in the rhizosphere
composition. Such manipulations have an important and
exciting implications not only to discourage soil-borne
plant pathogens but also to promote the activity of
beneficial microorganisms. Such syntrophic associations are
of ecological importance with implied agricultural
significance. In recent years, there has been a renewed
interest in the use of soil bacteria which when applied to
seeds/tubers/roots, are able to colonize plant roots and
stimulate growth and yield of plants. These have been termed
"Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)".
Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is a highly integrated system and
involves close association between a microsymbiont (Rhizobium/
Bradyrhizobium) and macrophyte (host). Attributes of
Rhizobium, host and associated rhizospheric microflora
influence the outcome of competition for nodulation sites.
Besides indigenous rhizobia, other rhizospheric
microorganisms also contribute to the competitive success of
an inoculant strain.
The present report is concerned with the utility of this
approach to promote mungbean-Rhizobium symbiosis.
(XIII) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. (Mrs.) Krishna
Misra, IIIT, Allahabad.
"Designing, Synthesis, Characterization and in vitro
testing of some novel herbal based prodrugs for combating
Rationale of the proposed work:
India is recognized all over the world for its rich wealth
of spices and herbal drugs. Phytochemicals in spices are
secondary metabolites, which are less toxic compared to
synthetic drugs and considered as vitamins of the 21st
century. Spices such as turmeric, mustard, ginger, clove and
garlic as a part of diet, have holistic effects on human
health by their wide variety of biofunctions and synergistic
Traditionally, turmeric, a popular spice derived from the
roots of Curcuma longa, is used for various ailments
e.g. wound healing, gastrointestinal disorder, blood
purification, rheumatic disorder, swelling rhinitis etc.
Curcumin, present in 2-5% yield is the main curcuminoid of
turmeric. It is a diarylheptanoid, polyphenolic compound.
There are few thousand reports from the scientific world
explaining its biological importance, multiple disease and
molecular targets. Antiangiogenisis, antioxidant,
antiinflammatory, cataract formation, diabetes, multiple
sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, HIV replication, gallstone
formation, anticancer, arthritis, liver injuries are disease
targets of curcumin. Growth factors and receptors,
transcription factors, cytokines, enzymes and regulatory
genes are some targets.
Despite having a plethora of multidrug targets there is no
single drug profile and specificity for curcumin due to its
poor water solubility, slow cellular uptake, fast metabolism
resulting in low bioavailability. Therefore, regular
repetitive oral doses are required in order to achieve
significant concentration inside the cell for therapeutic
activity. Very few reports are published in this direction.
In order to overcome the limitations associated with the
application of curcumin as a drug, our group has previously
synthesized many biodegradable conjugates of this lead
molecule, like di-O-piperoyl curcumin, di-O-glycinoyl
curcumin and di-O-glutamoyl curcumin etc. All these
bio-conjugates having ester or ether covalent bonds act as
prodrugs, since these get hydrolyzed in the system by
degrading enzymes (esterases) and thus show good
bioavailability profile. There are, transporter proteins tor
some of the ligands, specifically amino acids, which can
smuggle curcumin inside the cells. We have designed and also
planned to synthesize some other bio-conjugates of curcumin
with other biologically active amino acids.
Extraction and purification of Curcuminoids:
So far majority of the reports on the therapeutic value of
curcumin are actually of the mixture i.e. curcuminoids (demethoxycurcumin
DMC, bisdemethoxycurcumin UDMC, cyclocurcumin). However,
there are isolated reports on therapeutic activity of pure
naturally occurring analogues of curcumin and its synthetic
bioconjugates. It is essential to establish the role of each
curcuminoids regarding its individual biological activity.
In order to establish the pharmacokinetics of curcuminoids
we have isolated all the four curcuminoids from the rhizome
of Curcuma longa, through chromatographic techniques
and characterized with different spectroscopic techniques
like JR, MASS, and NMR spectroscopy. Due to close Rf values,
it was difficult to separate pure curcuminoids and the
yields were also very poor. So we adopted an alternate
strategy, i.e. to synthesize curcuminoids.
Synthesis of Curcuminoids: We have synthesized
curcumin starting with vanillin and acetyl acetone in good
yield. Another curcuminoids, bisdemethoxy-curcumin is
synthesized starting with 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde and
following the same procedure as incase of synthetic curcumin.
One analogue tetramethoxy-curcumin is synthesized by
subjecting curcumin to complete methylation. These synthetic
molecules have been purified and characterized by
chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. We have also
designed the synthetic route for cyclocurcumin and
demethoxycurcumin. This work is in progress.
(XIV) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. P.K. Gupta, CCS
The research work carried out by Professor PK Gupta, NASI
Senior Scientist (with a team of research workers, including
another faculty member and 8 research scholars) included the
following: (i) In wheat, marker-assisted selection was
deployed for improvement of a number of quality traits
including pre-harvest sprouting tolerance (PHST), grain
protein content (GPC) and grain weight (GW) using the
markers already known to be associated with these traits.
Under this project, for transfer of these traits from
suitable donors into two high yielding wheat varieties,
necessary crosses were made in the past. Each F1 hybrid was
backcrossed with the recipient parent to obtain BC1F1
population, which was subjected to foreground selection for
the trait of interest, and background selection for
restoring the genotype of the recipient parent. For
continuing this work further and for speedy completion of
the project, the material is being advanced using summer
nursery at Keylong. (ii) In another research project on
wheat, a student conducted transcriptome analysis of the
host (wheat) after inoculation with rust fungus, and
identified a number of genes that are differentially
expressed after rust infection. (iii) Another program in
wheat, which was initiated only during the current year in
collaboration with Directorate of Wheat Research (DWR)
Karnal, involved development of wheat varieties carrying
tolerance against drought and heat stresses. For this
purpose, characterized and available tolerant genotypes were
identified and crossed with high yielding susceptible wheat
cultivars, and backcrosses were made in the current rabi
season. This material is also being advanced in summer
nursery for speedy progress. (iv) In Jute (an important
fibre crop) involving both Corchorus capsularis and
C. olitorius, a research program for improvement of
fibre characteristics and lignin content was initiated four
years ago. This program continued during the year under
report and included development of a framework genetic map
for a mapping population to be used for QTL analysis.
Involving more than a hundred genotypes, association mapping
was also carried out for the study of the genetics of fibre
strength and lignin content. Under this program, more than
>500 SSR markers, and >1000 AFLP markers were developed and
are being used for mapping of QTL for fibre strength and
Gupta, P.K, J. Kumar, R.R. Mir, A. Kumar
(2010). Marker-assisted selection as a component of
conventional plant breeding. Plant Breed. Reviews
Gupta, P.K, P. Langridge and R.R Mir
(2010). Marker-assisted wheat breeding: present status
and future possibilities. Molecular Breeding 26:
Kumar, J., R.R. Mir, N. Kumar, A. Kumar,
A. Mohan, K.V. Prabhu, H.S. Balyan and P. K. Gupta
(2010). Marker-assisted selection for pre-harvest
sprouting tolerance and leaf rust resistance in bread
wheat. Plant Breeding, 129: 617-621
Rakshit, A., S. Rakshit, J. Singh, S.K.
Chopra, H.S. Balyan, P.K. Gupta and S. R. BHAT (2010)
Association of AFLP and SSR markers with agronomic and
fibre quality traits in Gossypium hirsutum L. J.
Genetics 89: 155-162.
Rakshit, A. S. Rakshit, V. Santhy, V.P.
Gotmare, P. Mohan, V.V. Singh, S. Singh, J. Singh, H.S.
Balyan, P.K. Gupta, S.R. Bhat (2010). Evaluation of SSR
markers for the assessment of genetic diversity and
fingerprinting of Gossypium hirsutum accessions.
J. Plant Biochem. Biotech. 19: 153-160.
Sablok, G., P.K. Gupta, J-M. Baek, F.
Vazquez and X.J. Min (2011). Genome wide survey of
alternative splicing in the
grass Brachypodium distachyon: an emerging model
biosystem for plant functional genomics. Biotechnol.
Lett. 33: 629-636
H.S. Balyan, P.L. Kulwal and V. Gahlaut (2011).
Phenotyping, genetic dissection, and breeding for
drought and heat tolerance in common wheat: status and
prospects. Plant Breed. Rev. (in press).
Kumar, J., V.
Jaiswal, A. Kumar, N. Kumar, R.R. Mir, S. Kumar, R.
Dhariwal, S. Tyagi, K.V. Prabhu, R. Prasad, H.S. Balyan,
P.K. Gupta (2011).
Introgression of a major gene for high grain protein
content in some Indian bread wheat cultivars. Field
Crops Res (in press).
Kulwal, P.L., R.R. Mir, S. Kumar and P.K.
Gupta (2011). QTL analysis
and molecular breeding for seed dormancy and pre-harvest
sprouting tolerance in bread wheat.
J. Plant Biol.,
Vol. 37: (in press).
Das, M., S.
Banerjee, N. Topdar, A. Kundu, D. Sarkar, M.K. Sarkar,
H.S. Balyan and P.K. Gupta (2011).
Development of large-scale AFLP markers
in jute. J. Plant Biochem. Biotech. (in press).
Gupta, P. K.
(2010). Angiosperm taxonomy in the age of genomics and
information technology. In Maiti, G.G & Mukherjee, S.K.
(eds.). “Modern Trends and Techniques in Taxonomy”
Proc. Intern’l Seminar “Multidisciplinary Approaches in
Angiosperm Systematics”, Univ. of Kalyani (11th
–13th October, 2008). Pp. 1-18 (in press).
Mir, R.R., J.
Kumar, H.S. Balyan and P.K. Gupta (2011). A study of
genetic diversity among Indian bread wheat cultivars
released during last 100 years. Genetic Resour. & Crop
Evol. (submitted after revision).
Mir, R.R., N. Kumar, N. Girdharwal, V.
Jaiswal, M. Prasad, H.S. Balyan and P.K. Gupta (2011).
Genetic dissection of grain weight (GW) in bread wheat
through QTL interval and association mapping. Mol Breed.
Tyagi, S. and
P.K. Gupta (2011).
Meta-analysis of QTLs involved in pre-harvest sprouting
tolerance and dormancy in bread wheat. Theor. Appl.
Genet. (under review)
(XV) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. Aloknath
Chakrabarti, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
Research work carried out:
A new method of solution of singular integral equations with
logarithmically singular kernels has been developed and
utilized in problems of fluid mechanics with special
emphasis to scattering of surface water wave problems. A
research paper, based on this work, has been accepted for
publication (see the list below). A similar analysis and
technique is expected to be utilized in mixed boundary value
problems of Elasticity also. Further research in this
direction is in progress.
A class of fluid flow-problems involving infinite channels
with arbitrary bottom topography has been analyzed in the
light of both linear as well as weakly nonlinear theory. A
research paper involving this study has been accepted for
publication ( see the list below). The fully nonlinear
theory applied to this class of fluid flow problems gives
rise to systems of singular integral equations involving
unknown curves of integration. The mathematical problem of
determination of solutions of integral equations involving
unknown ranges of integration is under investigation
 S. Banerjea, B. Datta and A Chakrabarti, "Solution of
singular integral equations involving logarithmically
singular kernels with application in water wave problem",
(accepted), in ISRN Applied Mathematics, (2011).
 A Chakrabarti and S. C. Martha;" A review on the
mathematical aspects of fluid flow problems in an infinite
channel with arbitrary bottom topography" (accepted for
publication) in Journal of Applied Mathematics and
Informatics, JAMI, (2011).
“Applied Singular Integral Equations", By B.N. Mandal and A.
Chakrabarti, Published by CRC Press, Taylor and Francis
A paper entitled "Solution of three-part Wiener-Hopf
problems occurring in Scattering Theory”, By A. Chakrabarti,
has been accepted to be presented as an invited talk in the
conference entitled "Frontiers in Applied and Computational
Mathematics", FACM-2011, to be held at NJIT (New Jersey
Institute of Technology), Newark, NJ, USA; during the
period: 9th to 11th June, 2011.
(XVI) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. K.A. Natarajan,
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
1. Microbially-induced flotation and flocculation of Indian
sulfide ores and oxides ores
such as lead-zinc sulfides, iron ores, bauxite and clays.
2. Bioleaching to help Indian Mining Industries and Atomic
minerals such as copper, zinc, gold and uranium. Efforts
will be made to extend my work to suit field conditions
through discussions with concerned Indian Mining Industries.
3. Bioremediation and environmental control with relevance
to Indian Mines. Through expertise developed over 30 years
of past research in my laboratories, efforts will now be
made to transfer acquired knowledge to industries such as
Hutti Gold Mines, Hindustan Copper Limited, Hindustan Zinc
Limited and Uranium Corporation of India Limited.
4. Maintenance of bacterial culture bank developed at Indian
Institute of Science, Bangalore. We have already developed
an Industrial Collection of Mining Microorganisms containing
various organisms such as Acidithiobacillus, Bacillus spp.,
Yeast and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria. All these organisms
isolated from various Indian mines will be preserved,
cultured and put to use in several applications such as
Bioleaching, Biomineral beneficiation and Bioremediation.
The following are the major achievements under the above
Bacterial culture bank:
Growth and preservation of mining microorganisms isolated
from Indian mines are maintained. Maintenance of bacterial
culture bank developed at Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore. We have developed an Industrial Collection of
Mining Microorganisms containing various organisms such as
Acidithiobacillus, Bacillus spp., Yeast and Sulfate
Reducing Bacteria. All these organisms isolated from various
Indian mines are preserved, cultured and put to use in
several applications such as Bioleaching, Biomineral
beneficiation and Bioremediation.
Delivered lectures and trained students and young
researchers from Indian institutions:
Microbially induced flotation and flocculation for iron
ore beneficiation and environmental control through xanthate
Selective separation of hematite from alumina and quartz /
calcite was achieved through microbiologically induced
flotation and flocculation in presence of Bacillus
subtilis. Bacterial metabolites containing extracellular
proteins were characterized from mineral-grown bacterial
cell free extract.
Cells of B. subtilis exhibited higher affinity
towards hematite when compared to quartz, calcite and
alumina. Bacterial adhesion was observed to be significantly
higher on hematite. Hematite could be effectively separated
from quartz, calcite and corundum through microbially-induced
selective flotation. Flotation recovery of quartz was around
90% and that of corundum and calcite was 70%. Extracellular
protein (EP) exhibited higher affinity towards quartz
compared to calcite and alumina and EP exhibited lower
affinity towards hematite. Mineral-induced proteins were
expressed when bacterial cells were grown in presence of
quartz, calcite, alumina and hematite.
Bioremediation of flotation collector like xanthate was
studied using Bacillus subtilis.
Bacterial utilization of the sodium isopropyl xanthate for
metabolism and growth leads to their gradual degradation in
the aqueous medium and this aspect is of great practical
significance in the effective removal of flotation reagents
from mineral processing effluents as a tool in environmental
control. Bacillus subtilis was effectively used to
degrade and remove residual flotation reagents from aqueous
(XVII) A brief report on the work done by NASI Senior
Scientist Platinum Jubilee Fellow, Prof. B.P. Chatterjee,
West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata
It has been long been known that cellular glycosylation
profiles change significantly during oncogenesis and other
inflammatory disease. Hence search continues for tumor or
liver secreted glycoproteins that can serve as biomarkers
for differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis, liver
cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Attempts have already been made to capture glycoproteins
from sera of liver disease including HCC using different
lectins followed by 2D gel electrophoresis where
up-regulation and down regulation of different serum
glycoproteins with respect to normal individuals as control
has been observed.
Protein identification by MALDI-TOF with Swissport data base
search and complete N-glycan analysis by multidimensional
HPLC with Glycan database search has been undertaken. Thus
lectin capture strategies combined with mass spectrometry
for the discovery of serum glycoprotein biomarker will be
To target cancer treatments specially to the tumor site,
without damaging healthy tissue is the current demand. The
answer to solving this challenge lies in the successful
application of nanotechnology to cancer treatment. Due to
its size, nanotechnology offers the potential to search out
and destroys cancerous tissues by a variety of targeting
methods employing potential drugs. The goal of this project
is to synthesize lectin-quantum dot (QD) or
lectin-nanoparticle (NP) conjugates to study non-malignant
and malignant cell surface sugar architecture. This
knowledge will help in drug targeting to the particular
cancer cells through binding of specific sugar and finds
application in biomedicine namely medical diagnosis,
bionanosensor and drug delivery agent.
Synthesis of different lectin-QDs conjugate through chemical
modification has been started to study different cell
surface glycan structure to use them as nanobiosensors.